# Impact of Cruising for Parking on Travel Time of Traffic Flow

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

_{2}emissions [1]. Obviously, cruising for parking congests traffic, pollutes the air, and creates CO

_{2}emissions.

## 2. Literature Review

## 3. Data Collection

#### 3.1. Survey Results from Park-and-Visit Tests

^{2}, the average acceleration times was 27.41 times, the average lane-change times was 4.79 times, and the average distracted time was 3.53 s. According to the variance analysis, cruising cars had a high frequency of speed-change and lane-change behavior. More characteristic parameters of cruising cars, such as cruising track, parking cruising duration, and lane change times, were obtained in Table 1.

#### 3.2. Survey Results from Videotapes

## 4. Methods

#### 4.1. Hazard-Based Duration Model

#### 4.2. Model Estimation

## 5. Empirical Results

#### 5.1. Factor Selection and Explanation

- Travel time, T(min). The travel time reflects traffic conditions under the influence of cruising behavior for parking. Through the survey, the average value of travel time was 3.01 min.
- Speed, V(km/h). The speed is the average speed of traffic on the road section. It reflects the road traffic situation, including cruising vehicles.
- Volume, Q(veh/h). The volume contains cruising vehicles and normal vehicles. It was counted for every road segment corresponding to the average volume.
- The percent of cruising vehicles, P (%). It is defined as the ratio of the number of cruising vehicles to the total number of vehicles. The samples were classified by the categorical variable P.
- Acceleration of cruising car, a(m/s
^{2}). The acceleration of cruising car is obtained from GPS positioning data of cruising vehicles. - The number of accelerations of cruising cars, a
_{c}(times). The times of acceleration of cruising car were counted for every cruising vehicle acceleration time corresponding to the average number of accelerations of cruising cars. - The number of lane-changes of cruising cars, LC
_{c}(times). The times of lane-changes of cruising cars were counted for every cruising vehicle change lane time corresponding to the average number of lane-changes of cruising cars. - Frequency of lane-change of cruising cars, LC
_{F}. It is defined as the ratio of the number of changing lanes of cruising vehicles to the total number of vehicles. The data were recorded by video. - Distracted time of cruising driver, Dt(s). The time the driver is distracted by searching for vacated parking lot.

#### 5.2. Estimated Results

_{c}, and Dt were reserved. Considering the interaction between explanatory variables, the final estimation of the travel time duration model is shown in Table 2. The LR statistic is 377.562 and larger than the Chi-squared statistic, in which situation the overall goodness of fit in the model is proven good. Because the LR statistic has 5 degrees of freedom at any level of significance, it clearly and comprehensively indicates the overall goodness of fit. From the results about statistical significance of each variable, all included variables are statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance.

#### 5.3. Effects of Explanatory Variables

_{c}, and Dt indicated a positive effect on travel time. However, the variable V had a negative impact, indicating that increasing variables could decrease the travel time. In order to evaluate the impacts on which travel duration is affected by explanatory variables, dividing both sides of Equation (7) by ${h}_{0}(t)$ can obtain a function of the hazard ratio (HR) (Equation (10)).

_{c}, and Dt) to visualize their effects.

#### 5.3.1. Effect of Speed

#### 5.3.2. Effect of Volume

#### 5.3.3. Effect of Acceleration of Cruising Car and Number of Accelerations of Cruising Cars

_{c}) and number of accelerations of cruising cars indicated that the increasing effective acceleration of cruising cars and number of accelerations of cruising cars can decrease the hazard or increase the continuance probability (shown in Figure 4c,d). In particular, the acceleration of cruising cars differed from normal cars. Due to searching the park space during driving, the driver of the cruising car was distracted, and often changed the acceleration subjectively. Normal cars were affected by the frequency of acceleration-change behavior of cruising cars. Travel time of traffic flow with mixed normal cars and cruising cars increased. In general, search time includes acceleration from the beginning to the end. The higher the acceleration, the shorter the acceleration time. Search time increases with a greater number of accelerations of cruising cars. Search time is an important reason for the increase in travel time. The average cruising time is 1.52min when the number of accelerations of cruising cars is less than 20 times. The average cruising time is 3.64min when the number of accelerations of cruising cars is more than 20 times. In Table 3, results show that a higher ratio of acceleration of cruising cars and number of accelerations of cruising cars would increase travel time (RHR is 6.46 and 126.47).

#### 5.3.4. Effect of Distracted Time of Cruising Driver

#### 5.4. Model Application

## 6. Discussion

## 7. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Speed of Cruising Car at Different Time Length is Compared with Normal Vehicle Speed. (

**a**) Speed of Cruising Car at Short Time Length is Compared with Normal Vehicle Speed; (

**b**) Speed of Cruising Car at Long Time Length is Compared with Normal Vehicle Speed; (

**c**) Speed of Cruising Car at Over-long Time Length is Compared with Normal Vehicle Speed.

**Figure 4.**Variables Related to RHR. (

**a**) The relationship between speed and RHR; (

**b**) The relationship between volume and RHR; (

**c**) The relationship between acceleration of cruising car and RHR; (

**d**) The relationship between number of cruising car and RHR; (

**e**) The relationship between distracted time of cruising car and RHR.

Test Section | Minimum | Maximum | Mean | Variance | Remarks |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Search time (min) | 1.350 | 29.710 | 6.030 | 3.859 | Total track length. Search time of cruising cars is generated by looking for parking space. |

Speed of cruising car (km/h) | 0.100 | 52.130 | 13.530 | 57.541 | The speed is average value of cruising cars. |

Acceleration of cruising car (m/s^{2}) | 0.010 | 0.530 | 0.250 | 0.079 | The acceleration is the average value of cruising cars. |

Number of accelerations of cruising car (times) | 9.000 | 45.000 | 27.410 | 8.284 | The number of accelerations is defined as cruising cars took acceleration or deceleration times. |

Number of lane-change of cruising car (times) | 0.000 | 17.000 | 4.790 | 3.582 | The number of lane-change is the times that cruising cars changed lanes. |

Frequency of lane-change of cruising car | 0.100 | 0.790 | 0.370 | 0.001 | The frequency of lane-change is measured by lane-change times of cruising cars. |

Distracted time of cruising driver (s) | 0.000 | 19.000 | 3.530 | 22.599 | The time of the driver is distracted by searching for vacated parking lot. |

Variable | $\mathit{\beta}$ | Standard Error | Wald Value | Sig. | Exp (β) | 95%CI for exp (β) | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Lower | Upper | ||||||

V | 0.145 | 0.048 | 9.213 | 0.002 | 1.156 | 1.053 | 1.269 |

Q | −0.006 | 0.001 | 40.093 | 0.000 | 0.994 | 0.993 | 0.996 |

a | −5.655 | 0.811 | 48.609 | 0.000 | 0.004 | 0.001 | 0.017 |

a_{c} | −0.220 | 0.037 | 34.485 | 0.000 | 0.803 | 0.746 | 0.864 |

Dt | −0.605 | 0.063 | 92.825 | 0.000 | 0.546 | 0.483 | 0.618 |

Variable | Mean | Variable Value | Relative Hazard Ratio | Hazard Ratio | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Unfavorable | Favorable | Low Hazard | High Hazard | |||

V | 22.13 | 6.48 | 49.87 | 0.10 | 55.74 | 539.67 |

Q | 757.42 | 162.78 | 1800.00 | 0.01 | 35.44 | 77.95 |

a | 0.25 | 0.01 | 0.53 | 0.20 | 3.98 | 6.46 |

a_{c} | 27.41 | 9.00 | 45.00 | 0.02 | 57.43 | 126.47 |

Dt | 3.52 | 0.00 | 19.00 | 0.00 | 8.46 | 98,223.42 |

Variable | $\mathit{\beta}$ | Sig. |
---|---|---|

Constant | −2.185 | 0.000 |

V | 0.057 | 0.000 |

Q | −0.000135 | 0.013 |

a | 1.359 | 0.000 |

P | 5.338 | 0.000 |

a_{c} | 0.058 | 0.000 |

CL_{F} | 1.512 | 0.010 |

Dt | 0.144 | 0.000 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhu, Y.; Ye, X.; Chen, J.; Yan, X.; Wang, T.
Impact of Cruising for Parking on Travel Time of Traffic Flow. *Sustainability* **2020**, *12*, 3079.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083079

**AMA Style**

Zhu Y, Ye X, Chen J, Yan X, Wang T.
Impact of Cruising for Parking on Travel Time of Traffic Flow. *Sustainability*. 2020; 12(8):3079.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083079

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhu, Yating, Xiaofei Ye, Jun Chen, Xingchen Yan, and Tao Wang.
2020. "Impact of Cruising for Parking on Travel Time of Traffic Flow" *Sustainability* 12, no. 8: 3079.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083079