Nanospheres were prepared by different materials of nano-bamboo charcoal powder, zeolite powder, and aquaculture pond sediment in different ratios. It was then fermented with effective microorganisms (EM) active calcium liquid to synthesize the bioactive microbial nanospheres. These nanospheres were used to compare the purification effect of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+
-N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) pollutants in aquaculture wastewater. The indoor simulation experiment was also conducted to compare the different dosage methods (one-time dosing without aeration, multiple dosing without aeration, and multiple dosing with aeration) of microbial nanospheres on the removal of organic matter (OM) and effect of the biodegradability (G value) in aquaculture sediment. The results obtained indicated that the purification effect was most remarkable when the mass ratio of nano-bamboo charcoal powder: zeolite powder: pond sediment was 10%: 15%: 75%, in which the maximum removal rate of NH4+
-N, TN, and TP reached up to 84.86%, 52.15%, and 50.35%, respectively. Under the same microbial nanospheres amount, the effect of one-time addition on the removing of OM in sediment was not as effective as that of multiple dosing. After the 20th day, the removal rate of OM reached 25.99% in multiple dosing treatment and it was 35.58% higher than one-time dosing treatment. The OM content in sediment was reduced by 32.38% under the multiple dosing with aeration treatment. Multiple dosing of microbial nanospheres with aeration increased the G value of sediment about 337.0%. In situ experiment further indicated that the microbial nanospheres dosage with aeration had a good sediment bio-remediation effect, which is applicable to solve the problem of endogenous pollution in aquaculture ponds.
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