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Open AccessArticle

Charge Transfer in Mixed-Phase TiO2 Photoelectrodes for Perovskite Solar Cells

1
Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119334 Moscow, Russia
2
Department of Energy Environmental Water and Sustainability, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea
3
Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030788
Received: 3 December 2019 / Revised: 15 January 2020 / Accepted: 16 January 2020 / Published: 21 January 2020
In mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) the recombination processes within the TiO2 photoelectrode and at the TiO2/perovskite interface limit power conversion efficiency. To overcome this challenge, we investigated the effect of TiO2 phase composition on the electronic structure of TiO2 photoelectrodes, as well as on PSCs performance. For this, a set of PSCs based on TiO2 thin films with different content of anatase and rutile particles was fabricated under ambient conditions. X-ray diffraction, optical spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the structural, morphological and optical characteristics of TiO2 powders and TiO2-based thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of anatase revealed a cliff conduction band alignment of 0.2 eV with respect to the rutile. Energy band alignment at the anatase/rutile/perovskite interfaces deduced from the XPS data provides the possibility for interparticle electron transport from the rutile to anatase phase and the efficient blocking of electron recombination at the TiO2/perovskite interface, leading to efficient electron-hole separation in PSCs based on mixed-phase TiO2 photoelectrodes. PSCs based on TiO2 layers with 60/40 anatase/rutile ratio were characterized by optimized charge extraction and low level of recombination at the perovskite/TiO2 interface and showed the best energy conversion efficiency of 13.4% among the studied PSCs. Obtained results provide a simple and effective approach towards the development of the next generation high efficiency PSCs. View Full-Text
Keywords: perovskite solar cells; titanium dioxide; rutile; anatase; optoelectronic structure perovskite solar cells; titanium dioxide; rutile; anatase; optoelectronic structure
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Nikolskaia, A.; Vildanova, M.; Kozlov, S.; Tsvetkov, N.; Larina, L.; Shevaleevskiy, O. Charge Transfer in Mixed-Phase TiO2 Photoelectrodes for Perovskite Solar Cells. Sustainability 2020, 12, 788.

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