Interdisciplinary Hazards: Methodological Insights from a Multi-Sectoral Study of Drought in the UK
1. Introduction: Frameworks for Analyzing Natural Hazards as both a ‘Natural’ and ‘Social’ Phenomenon
1.1. Elinor Ostrom’s Social-Ecological System (SES) Framework
1.2. The DPSIR Framework
1.3. Linking Natural and Social Dimensions of Water-Related Hazards
2.1. Steps for Developing Conceptual Frameworks
2.1.1. Agreement on Common Language and Key Concepts
2.1.2. Developing Conceptual Frameworks Deductively or Inductively?
2.1.3. Quantitative or Qualitative Analysis?
2.2. Applying the DRI Framework
2.2.1. The Drivers, Responses, and Impacts (DRI) Conceptual Framework
2.2.2. Developing Systems Interactions Maps (SIMs)
3.1. Examining System Interactions Within a Drought
3.1.1. Developing Questions
- At what spatial and temporal scale will the analysis be conducted? Should there be a uniform scale for data collection applicable for all sectors, or should the spatial or temporal scale at which data are collected be different and thus responsive to the specific characteristics of particular sectors? For instance, which regions in the UK were most affected by the 1976 is not uniform across all sectors, and different sectors have slightly different time lines for the 1976 drought. For some sectors the drought lasted from 1975 to 1977.
- Among a whole range of drivers, responses, and impacts, which ones should be chosen as the most important ones, on the basis of what criteria? Whose interests, and thus which stakeholders’ views of the importance of a particular driver, response, or impact of a drought should count?
- Should the relative importance of different drivers of drought and water scarcity in various sectors be assessed? For example, what is the significance of regulatory changes in relation to the reduction of leakage by water companies in comparison to hydrological conditions influencing drought risk?
3.1.2. Insights about System Interactions from the 1976 Drought
3.2. Interactions between Sectors across Drought Episodes
3.2.2. How to Examine Systems Interactions for Multiple Drought Episodes?
- Which drought episodes should be examined? Should the focus be on sequential droughts to determine if there is any apparent linkage between a response to a prior drought leading to some change, e.g., on the impacts in a subsequent drought?
- How do we account for changes in other factors which can contribute to changes in drivers, responses, and imapcts of droughts over time, such as cultural factors, e.g., enhanced emphasis on water efficiency or changes in agricultural policy?
3.2.3. Findings from a Comparison of the 1976 and 1995 Droughts
3.3. Discussion of Challenges
Conflicts of Interest
- European Commission Program on Water Scarcity and Droughts in the European Union. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/quantity/scarcity_en.htm (accessed on 2 August 2020).
- US National Science Foundation. 2014: Interdisciplinary Research in Hazards and Disasters (Hazards SEES), Program Solicitation 14-581. Available online: https://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=nsf14581&org=ENG (accessed on 2 August 2020).
- UK Natural Environment Research Council Program on Drought and Water Scarcity. Available online: https://nerc.ukri.org/research/funded/programmes/droughts/ (accessed on 2 August 2020).
- A Review of the UK’s Interdisciplinary Research Using A Citation-Based Approach; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2015. Available online: https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20170712122715/http://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/rereports/Year/2015/interdisc/ (accessed on 28 August 2020).
- Mostert, E. An alternative approach for socio-hydrology: Case study research. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 2018, 22, 317–329. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Van Emerick, T.H.M.; Li, Z.; Sivapalan, M.; Pande, S.; Kandasamy, J.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Chanan, A.; Vigneswaran, S. Socio-Hydrologic modeling to understand and mediate the competition for water between agriculture development and environmental health: Murrumbidgee River basin, Australia. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 2014, 18, 4239–4259. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Ostrom, E.; Janssen, M. Chapter 13: Multi-level governance and resilience of social-ecological systems. In Globalisation, Poverty and Conflict; Spoor, M., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 2004; pp. 239–259. [Google Scholar]
- Ostrom, E. A diagnostic approach for going beyond panaceas. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2007, 104, 15181–15187. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Ostrom, E. A General Framework for Analyzing Sustainability of Social-Ecological Systems. Science 2009, 325, 419–422. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- McGinnis, M.D.; Ostrom, E. Social-ecological systems framework: Initial changes and continuing challenges. Ecol. Soc. 2014, 19, 30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Cole, D.; Epstein, G.; McGinnis, M. Toward a New Institutional Analysis of Social-Ecological Systems (NIASES): Combining Elinor Ostrom’s IAD and SES Frameworks. Indiana Leg. Stud. Res. Pap. 2014, 299. Available online: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2490999 (accessed on 2 September 2014).
- Anderies, J.; Janssen, M. Robustness of Social-Ecological Systems: Implications for Public Policy. Policy Stud. J. 2013, 41, 513–536. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Folke, C. Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses. Glob. Environ. Chang. 2006, 16, 253–267. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rey, D.; Holman, I.; Knox, J. Developing drought resilience in irrigated agriculture in the face of increasing water scarcity. Reg. Environ. Chang. 2017, 17, 1527–1540. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Drought Risk and You (DRY), and Climate Outreach. Communicating Drought Risk in a Changing Climate. Available online: http://dryproject.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Climate-Outreach-DRY-Drought-Risk-and-You-Aug-2016.pdf (accessed on 2 August 2020).
- Araral, E. Ostrom, Hardin and the commons: A critical appreciation and a revisionist view. Environ. Sci. Policy 2014, 36, 11–23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Linstädter, A.; Kuhn, A.; Naumann, C.; Rasch, S.; Sandhage-Hofmann, A.; Amelung, W.; Jordaan, J.; Du Preez, C.C.; Bollig, M. Assessing the resilience of areal-world social-ecological system: Lessons from a multidisciplinary evaluation of a South African pastoral system. Ecol. Soc. 2016, 21, 35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Thiel, A.; Adamseged, M.E.; Baake, C. Evaluating an instrument for institutional crafting: How Ostrom’s social-ecological systems framework is applied. Environ. Sci. Policy 2015, 53, 152–164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gregory, A.; Atkins, J.; Burdon, D.; Elliott, M. A problem structuring method for ecosystem based management: The DPSIR modelling process. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 2013, 227, 558–569. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lange, B. Command and Control Standards and Cross-Jurisdictional Harmonization. In Oxford Handbook in Comparative Environmental Law; Lees, E., Viñuales, J., Eds.; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2019; pp. 852–875. [Google Scholar]
- Di Baldassarre, G.; Martinez, F.; Kalantari, Z.; Viglione, A. Drought and flood in the Anthropocene: Feedback mechanisms in reservoir operation. Earth Syst. Dyn. 2017, 8, 225–233. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Sivapalan, M.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Blöschl, G. Socio-hydrology: A new science of people and water. Hydrol. Process. 2012, 26, 1270–1276. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wens, M.; Johnson, M.; Zagaria, C.; Veldkamp, T. Integrating human behaviour dynamics into drought risk assessment—A sociohydrologic, agent-based approach. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Water 2019, 6, e1345. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L.; Salinas, J.L.; Blöschl, G. Socio-hydrology: Conceptualising human-flood interactions. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 2013, 17, 3295–3303. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Kam, J.; Stowers, K.; Kim, S. Monitoring of drought awareness from google trends: A case study of the 2011-17 California drought. Weather Clim. Soc. 2019, 11, 419–429. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jaeger, W.; Amos, A.; Conklin, D.; Langpap, C.; Moore, K.; Plantinga, A. Scope and limitations of drought management within complex human-natural systems. Nat. Sustain. 2019, 2, 710–717. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kruse, S.; Seidl, I. Social capacities for drought risk management in Switzerland. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 2013, 13, 3429–3441. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Albertini, C.; Mazzoleni, M.; Totaro, V.; Iacobellis, V.; Di Baldassarre, G. Socio-Hydrological Modelling: The Influence of Reservoir Management and Societal Responses on Flood Impacts. Water 2020, 12, 1384. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N. Social and structural patterns of drought-related water conservation and rebound. Water Resour. Res. 2017, 53, 10619–10634. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Binder, C.R.; Hinkel, J.; Bots, P.W.; Pahl-Wostl, C. Comparison of frameworks for analyzing social-ecological systems. Ecol. Soc. 2013, 18, 26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Brown, R.; Deletic, A.; Wong, T. Interdisciplinarity: How to catalyse collaboration. Nature 2015, 525, 315. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Freire-González, J.; Decker, C.; Hall, J.W. The economic impacts of droughts: A framework for analysis. Ecol. Econ. 2017, 132, 196–204. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Troy, J.; Pavao-Zuckerman, M.; Evans, T.P. Debates—Perspectives on socio-hydrology: Socio-hydrologic modelling: Tradeoffs, hypothesis testing, and validation. Water Resour. Res. 2015, 51, 4806–4814. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Marsh, T. The UK drought of 2003: A hydrological review. Weather 2004, 59, 224–230. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Umweltbundesamt, Climate Protection in Transport: Need for Action in the Wake of the Paris Climate Agreement. 2017. Available online: File:///C:/Users/socl0184/Documents/History%20of%20Droughts/Revision%20of%20Historic%20Droughts%20Paper/Submission%20to%20Sustainability/2017-11-03_texte_97-2017_climate-protection-transport.pdf (accessed on 28 August 2020).
- Van Loon, A. Drought in a human-modified world: Reframing drought conditions, understanding, and analysis approaches. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 2016, 20, 3631–3650. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Lange, B.; Holman, I.; Bloomfield, J.P. A framework for a joint hydro-meteorological-social analysis of drought. Sci. Total Environ. 2017, 578, 297–306. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- The Historic Droughts Inventory. Available online: http://aboutdrought.info/drought-research/data-and-information/#inventory (accessed on 2 August 2020).
- BBC. What the Drought of 1976 Looked Like as This Year’s Heatwave Continues. 21 June 2017. Available online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/article/40358961/what-the-drought-of-1976-looked-like-as-this-years-heatwave-continues (accessed on 2 August 2020).
- Bakker, K. Privatizing water, producing scarcity: The Yorkshire drought of 1995. Econ. Geogr. 2000, 76, 4–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barthel, R.; Seidl, R. Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Natural and Social Sciences—Status and Trends exemplified in Groundwater Research. PLoS ONE 2017, 12, e0170754. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
|Impact||Number of Times Identified in SIMs as a Key Impact of the 1976 Drought|
|Low water availability||4|
|Low river flows||4|
|Low water availability for agriculture||3|
|Reductions in groundwater||2|
|Changes to laws and regulations, such as the introduction of the Water Charges Equalisation Act 1977|
(which sought to reduce large differences between charges levied for water for customers in different parts of England and Wales).
|New water use planning requirements||1|
|Impact on recreation, i.e., closure of sporting grounds that could not be watered.||1|
|Decreased infiltration rate of water into soil.||1|
|Driver||No. of Times Identified in SIM (as % of Total)||Driver||No. of Times Identified in SIM (as % of Total)|
|Low rainfall||25%||Poor water company management||27%|
|Poor planning||25%||Poor leakage control||20%|
|High temperature||13%||Absence of water grid/interconnection||13%|
|Poor coordination, including absence of water grid and management||13%||Low rainfall||13%|
|Low levels of investment||13%||Lack of storage||13%|
|Legal/governance framework for the agricultural sector||13%||High temperature||7%|
|Impact||No. of Times Identified in SIM (as % of Total)||Impact||No. of Times Identified in SIM (as % of Total)|
|Low water for agriculture||33%||Low water for agriculture||59%|
|Low water availability for domestic and industrial customers||22%||Low water availability for domestic and industrial customers||11%|
|Changes to laws and regulations||22%||Changes to laws and regulations||6%|
|New planning of water resources and hydrological boundaries||11%||Delays to sporting events and recreational activities||3%|
|Fires||11%||Impacts on water quality||3%|
|Limited ability to move water around||2%|
|New capital expenditure||1%|
|Response||No. of Times Identified in SIM (as % of Total)||Response||No. of Times Identified in SIM (as % of Total)|
|Agriculture changes to production and composition||33%||Attempts to change water user behaviour more generally||27%|
|Increase in number of fire units deployed day and night||22%||Agriculture changes to production and crop/livestock composition||23%|
|Water restrictions (and rota cuts)||11%||Water restrictions and planning for rota cuts||28%|
|Legal change, e.g., Drought Act 1976.||11%||Tankering||7%|
|New guidance in relation to water efficiency||11%||Drought orders||6%|
|Drought orders||11%||Focus on leakage policy||5%|
|Changes to policy and guidance||4%|
© 2020 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Lange, B. Interdisciplinary Hazards: Methodological Insights from a Multi-Sectoral Study of Drought in the UK. Sustainability 2020, 12, 7183. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177183
Lange B. Interdisciplinary Hazards: Methodological Insights from a Multi-Sectoral Study of Drought in the UK. Sustainability. 2020; 12(17):7183. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177183Chicago/Turabian Style
Lange, Bettina. 2020. "Interdisciplinary Hazards: Methodological Insights from a Multi-Sectoral Study of Drought in the UK" Sustainability 12, no. 17: 7183. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177183