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Sustainable Water Security Based on the SDG Framework: A Case Study of the 2019 Metro Manila Water Crisis

1
Department of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
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Graduate School of International Studies, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
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Department of International Commerce and Department of Political Science and International Relations, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea
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Department of International Studies, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea
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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
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Institute of Life Science and Natural Resources, Korea University, Seoul 02481, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 6860; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12176860
Received: 26 June 2020 / Revised: 6 August 2020 / Accepted: 21 August 2020 / Published: 24 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Air, Climate Change and Sustainability)
Despite being Asia’s fastest-growing economy, as of 2015, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) ranked the Philippines 33rd out of 48 countries in terms of water security. This verifies that economic development does not always lead to better provisions of basic needs. This study attempts to discover the fundamental issues that decrease water security in Metro Manila, the capital region of the Philippines. With El Niño disrupting the optimal weather conditions, Metro Manila is facing the lasting impacts of a water shortage crisis, which is the worst in the past decade. This research inspects the role of climate change in exacerbating El Niño, and its threat to the water security of the developing city. Furthermore, other factors that influence Metro Manila’s water security are discussed. Upon establishing a correlation between climate change and El Niño, Metro Manila’s general water management strategy is evaluated to better assess the multiple factors that have led to the current water shortage crisis. This paper is intended to recommend necessary and feasible proactive measures that are geared towards water security in Metro Manila, and possibly other cities with similar circumstances. View Full-Text
Keywords: water security; Metro Manila; climate change; El Niño; SDGs water security; Metro Manila; climate change; El Niño; SDGs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, H.; Son, J.; Joo, D.; Ha, J.; Yun, S.; Lim, C.-H.; Lee, W.-K. Sustainable Water Security Based on the SDG Framework: A Case Study of the 2019 Metro Manila Water Crisis. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6860. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12176860

AMA Style

Lee H, Son J, Joo D, Ha J, Yun S, Lim C-H, Lee W-K. Sustainable Water Security Based on the SDG Framework: A Case Study of the 2019 Metro Manila Water Crisis. Sustainability. 2020; 12(17):6860. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12176860

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Halim, Jaewon Son, Dayoon Joo, Jinhyeok Ha, Seongreal Yun, Chul-Hee Lim, and Woo-Kyun Lee. 2020. "Sustainable Water Security Based on the SDG Framework: A Case Study of the 2019 Metro Manila Water Crisis" Sustainability 12, no. 17: 6860. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12176860

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