Hybrid Deep Learning Algorithm with Open Innovation Perspective: A Prediction Model of Asthmatic Occurrence
Department of Computer and Telecommunications Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju 26493, Korea
Graduate School of Computer Science, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju 26493, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6143; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156143
Received: 26 June 2020 / Revised: 29 July 2020 / Accepted: 29 July 2020 / Published: 30 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambidextrous Open Innovation for Sustainability)
Due to recent advancements in industrialization, climate change and overpopulation, air pollution has become an issue of global concern and air quality is being highlighted as a social issue. Public interest and concern over respiratory health are increasing in terms of a high reliability of a healthy life or the social sustainability of human beings. Air pollution can have various adverse or deleterious effects on human health. Respiratory diseases such as asthma, the subject of this study, are especially regarded as ‘directly affected’ by air pollution. Since such pollution is derived from the combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and meteorological environmental factors, and it is not easy to estimate its influence on feasible respiratory diseases in various atmospheric environments. Previous studies have used clinical and cohort data based on relatively a small number of samples to determine how atmospheric pollutants affect diseases such as asthma. This has significant limitations in that each sample of the collections is likely to produce inconsistent results and it is difficult to attempt the experiments and studies other than by those in the medical profession. This study mainly focuses on predicting the actual asthmatic occurrence while utilizing and analyzing the data on both the atmospheric and meteorological environment officially released by the government. We used one of the advanced analytic models, often referred to as the vector autoregressive model (VAR), which traditionally has an advantage in multivariate time-series analysis to verify that each variable has a significant causal effect on the asthmatic occurrence. Next, the VAR model was applied to a deep learning algorithm to find a prediction model optimized for the prediction of asthmatic occurrence. The average error rate of the hybrid deep neural network (DNN) model was numerically verified to be about 8.17%, indicating better performance than other time-series algorithms. The proposed model can help streamline the national health and medical insurance system and health budget management in South Korea much more effectively. It can also provide efficiency in the deployment and management of the supply and demand of medical personnel in hospitals. In addition, it can contribute to the promotion of national health, enabling advance alerts of the risk of outbreaks by the atmospheric environment for chronic asthma patients. Furthermore, the theoretical methodologies, experimental results and implications of this study will be able to contribute to our current issues of global change and development in that the meteorological and environmental data-driven, deep-learning prediction model proposed hereby would put forward a macroscopic directionality which leads to sustainable public health and sustainability science.