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Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health and Costs: Current Situation in São Paulo, Brazil

1
Department of Production Engineering, University of São Paulo, Prof. Luciano Gualberto Avenue, 1380, Butantã, São Paulo 05508-010, Brazil
2
Industrial Engineering Post Graduation Program, Nine July University, São Paulo 01525-000, Brazil
3
School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas, São Paulo 13083-970, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 4875; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12124875
Received: 22 April 2020 / Revised: 28 May 2020 / Accepted: 8 June 2020 / Published: 15 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
This study focused on verifying whether the emission of air pollutants in São Paulo increases the costs and number of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases in Brazil. Data on pollutant emissions, hospitalizations, and hospital costs were collected from 2008 to 2017 and correlated with air quality standards. The results showed that the concentration of particulate matter increased each year during the study period and was highly correlated with hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases. Ozone (O3) was within the quality standard throughout the study period but registered an increase in the mean and a positive correlation with hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases. The carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels were within the quality standards throughout the study period with a decrease in the last years studied, but showed a positive correlation with hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases. The pollutant emissions and hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases had an inverse relationship with the monthly rainfall curve for São Paulo, which indicates that rainfall tended to reduce pollutant emissions and consequently hospitalizations due to inhalation of these pollutants. Because costs are directly associated with hospitalizations, both increased during the study period—302,000 hospitalizations at an average cost of 368 USD resulted in a total cost of 111 million USD. To reduce these costs, Brazil should implement stricter policies to improve the air quality of its major cities and develop a viable alternative to diesel vehicles. View Full-Text
Keywords: air quality index; pollutant emissions; human health; particulate material; pulmonary disease; environmental protection air quality index; pollutant emissions; human health; particulate material; pulmonary disease; environmental protection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Santana, J.C.C.; Miranda, A.C.; Yamamura, C.L.K.; Silva Filho, S.C.d.; Tambourgi, E.B.; Lee Ho, L.; Berssaneti, F.T. Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health and Costs: Current Situation in São Paulo, Brazil. Sustainability 2020, 12, 4875. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12124875

AMA Style

Santana JCC, Miranda AC, Yamamura CLK, Silva Filho SCd, Tambourgi EB, Lee Ho L, Berssaneti FT. Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health and Costs: Current Situation in São Paulo, Brazil. Sustainability. 2020; 12(12):4875. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12124875

Chicago/Turabian Style

Santana, José C.C., Amanda C. Miranda, Charles L.K. Yamamura, Silvério C.d. Silva Filho, Elias B. Tambourgi, Linda Lee Ho, and Fernando T. Berssaneti 2020. "Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health and Costs: Current Situation in São Paulo, Brazil" Sustainability 12, no. 12: 4875. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12124875

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