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Open AccessArticle

Practical Head-Outflow Relationship Definition Methodology That Accounts for Varied Water-Supply Methods

1
School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
2
Department of Civil Environmental Engineering, The University of Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 18323, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4755; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114755
Received: 18 May 2020 / Revised: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 8 June 2020 / Published: 10 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety in the Operation of Water Supply Systems)
Achieving reliable pressure-driven analysis (PDA) results that account for anomalies within water-pipe networks requires a head-outflow relationship (HOR) model that can calculate supply flow rate according to the supply pressure at each node. Many studies have suggested HOR models, but a methodology to define HORs that considers the actual residential environment of users and differing water-supply methods for residential buildings has not yet been proposed. This study considered water-use data from buildings and actual differences in residential environments in a surveyed area (including building heights, topography, and water systems within buildings) and water-supply methods (indirect/direct water supply, existence of a pump within buildings) to develop a methodology and derive a representative HOR for the target area for PDA. Further, a representative HOR was determined for each block by applying the developed methodology for two blocks with similar residential environments but different water-use patterns. It confirmed that the HOR induced through this process could provide high water-supply performance despite a low supply head and needed to reflect the diversity of the water-supply method. The proposed HOR-definition methodology can be easily applied in water-pipe network design and operation processes and ensure objectivity and rationality of HOR selection to yield reliable PDA results. View Full-Text
Keywords: pressure-driven analysis; demand-driven analysis; head-outflow relationship; secondary water-pipe network; water supply pressure-driven analysis; demand-driven analysis; head-outflow relationship; secondary water-pipe network; water supply
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, D.E.; Yoo, D.G.; Kim, J.H. Practical Head-Outflow Relationship Definition Methodology That Accounts for Varied Water-Supply Methods. Sustainability 2020, 12, 4755.

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