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Open AccessArticle

Triple-Binder-Stabilized Marine Deposit Clay for Better Sustainability

Civil Engineering, European University of Lefke, North Cyprus, Mersin TR-10, Turkey
Civil Engineering Program, Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus, Kalkanli, Guzelyurt, North Cyprus, Mersin TR-10, Turkey
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4633;
Received: 20 March 2020 / Revised: 3 June 2020 / Accepted: 4 June 2020 / Published: 5 June 2020
Marine clay deposits are commonly found worldwide. Considering the cost of dumping and related environmental concerns, an alternative solution involving the reuse of soils that have poor conditions is crucial. In this research, the authors examined the strength, microstructure, and wet–dry resistance of triple-binder composites of marine-deposited clays and compiled a corresponding database. In order to evaluate the wetting–drying resistance of the laboratory-produced samples, the accumulated mass loss (ALM) was calculated. The use of slag alone as a binder, at any percentage, increased the ALM up to 2%. However, the use of lime as the third binder seemed to accelerate the chemical reactions associated with the hydration of clay and cementitious material and to enhance the chemical stability, i.e., specimens that included both lime and slag experienced the same ALM as specimens treated with cement only. Scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the durability improvements of these clays. The proposed unconfined compressive strength–porosity and accumulated mass loss relationship yielded practical approximation for the fine- and coarse-grained soils blended with up to three binders until 60 days of curing. The laboratory-produced mixes showed reduction of embodied energy and embodied carbon dioxide (eCO2) emissions for the proposed models. View Full-Text
Keywords: cement; lime; copper slag; strength; durability; microstructure; eCO2; embodied energy cement; lime; copper slag; strength; durability; microstructure; eCO2; embodied energy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hanafi, M.; Ekinci, A.; Aydin, E. Triple-Binder-Stabilized Marine Deposit Clay for Better Sustainability. Sustainability 2020, 12, 4633.

AMA Style

Hanafi M, Ekinci A, Aydin E. Triple-Binder-Stabilized Marine Deposit Clay for Better Sustainability. Sustainability. 2020; 12(11):4633.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hanafi, Mohamad; Ekinci, Abdullah; Aydin, Ertug. 2020. "Triple-Binder-Stabilized Marine Deposit Clay for Better Sustainability" Sustainability 12, no. 11: 4633.

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