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Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2296; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082296

The Impact of Tourism Quality on Economic Development and Environment: Evidence from Mediterranean Countries

1
School of Business, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, China
2
Department of Economics and Finance, Hakkari University, 30000 Hakkari, Turkey
3
School of Business, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, UK
4
School of Economics, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023, China
5
School of Economics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
6
Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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PDF [258 KB, uploaded 17 April 2019]

Abstract

This paper is the first of its kind to measure the income level of a country’s tourist arrival and empirically examine its impact on economic growth and environmental pollution in a sample of eight Mediterranean countries. The paper undertakes annual data from 1995 to 2014 and employs quantile regression models, autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) estimations, and a heterogeneity causality test. The empirical results show that the income level of a country’s tourist arrival, across all quantiles, plays an important role in promoting economic development. However, the role of the income level of a country’s tourist arrival on environmental pollution varies with the changes in quantiles. More specifically, income level of a country’s tourist arrival has a positive impact on environmental pollution for the lower quantiles, while it has a negative impact for higher quantiles. The findings from panel ARDL models confirm that the income level of a country’s tourist arrival has positive and negative impacts on economic growth and emissions, respectively. Given these results, these findings provide information to take the necessary actions to ensure sustainable tourism development, i.e., the expansion of the tourism industry without harming the environment in the Mediterranean countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: income level of tourist arrivals; economic growth; environmental pollution; Mediterranean region; quantile regression models; panel ARDL estimations income level of tourist arrivals; economic growth; environmental pollution; Mediterranean region; quantile regression models; panel ARDL estimations
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Taizeng, R.; Can, M.; Paramati, S.R.; Fang, J.; Wu, W. The Impact of Tourism Quality on Economic Development and Environment: Evidence from Mediterranean Countries. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2296.

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