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Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2273;

Climate Change and Economic Growth: The Role of Environmental Policy Stringency

ESOMAS Department, University of Torino; 10124 Torino, Italy
Collegio Carlo Alberto, 10122 Torino, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 3 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
PDF [1944 KB, uploaded 16 April 2019]


The paper investigates the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality in the context of the Kuznets curve, which foresees that growth, while initially causing negative externalities for the environment, eventually can be seen also as the solution to environmental degradation. The novelty of the paper is to analyze the role of environmental policies, and in particular the use of market-based and non-market instruments to challenge the pollution plague and mitigate climate change. The results of fixed effects estimates on a sample of 32 countries observed for the period 1992–2012 show the existence of an inverted U-shaped relationship between per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and per-capita CO2 emissions for the quadratic specification, as well as of an N-shaped pattern for the cubic specification. Most importantly, the stringency indexes, i.e., the proxies used to account for environmental regulation, exhibit negative and strongly significant coefficients, suggesting that the policies are effective in reducing environmental damages associated with economic growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: Environmental Kuznets’s curve; environmental policies; stringency index Environmental Kuznets’s curve; environmental policies; stringency index

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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de Angelis, E.M.; Di Giacomo, M.; Vannoni, D. Climate Change and Economic Growth: The Role of Environmental Policy Stringency. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2273.

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