Mapping and Assessing Green Infrastructure Connectivity in European City Regions
2. Materials and Methods
- Isolation of green spaces—The first indicator is similar to standard distance measures used in multifunctionality analyses. In contrast, the focus is not on identifying where isolated settlement areas are situated within the urban realm, as is the case for the distance from any settlement area to the nearest green space . In our case, the mapping logic starting point is each green space from which we calculate the distance to the nearest neighbouring green space. By doing so, our indicator highlights areas within urban influenced areas where green space supply is relatively scattered and isolated. More precisely, the isolation is centred around the spatial linkage of one element of green infrastructure to another. In the case of a green space that is far away from the nearest next green space, the indicator is high, and vice versa for plots in which green spaces directly connect to another.Isolation can, therefore, be seen as a spatially explicit version of the proximity metric used in landscape analysis . The motivation is to inform spatial planning in cities and regions not only where settlement areas lack connectivity to green spaces but also to extend the view of UGI to understand where there is a lack of green space connectivity.
- Connectivity hexagons—The isolation analysis is further deepened by introducing a hexagon grid onto the spatial extension of the urban influenced area. Hexagon grids are very powerful when looking at cell connectivity because they outperform regular rectangular grids in terms of explaining neighbourhood connectivity levels. This is because they cover an entire area of interest but also give information on the number of neighbourhood connections while offering minimum distances between hexagon centres .In our UGI connectivity analysis, we construct a hexagon grid with 500-m sides for the three urban-influenced case study areas. For each grid cell, we set the dominating land use class as its cell type, green space or settlement area. For instance, a hexagon in which the dominant land use is commercial areas, will be defined as settlement area. In contrast to this there are green area hexagons, if the dominant land use (over 50% of the hexagon area) is of any of the UGI land use types.
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|Elements of Green Infrastructure|
|14,100||Green urban areas|
|14,200||Sports and leisure facilities|
|21,000||Arable land (annual crops)|
|22,000||Permanent crops (vineyards, fruit trees, olive groves)|
|24,000||Complex and mixed cultivation patterns|
|25,000||Orchards at the fringe of urban classes|
|32,000||Herbaceous vegetation associations (natural grassland, moors, etc.)|
|33,000||Open spaces with little or no vegetation|
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Rusche, K.; Reimer, M.; Stichmann, R. Mapping and Assessing Green Infrastructure Connectivity in European City Regions. Sustainability 2019, 11, 1819. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061819
Rusche K, Reimer M, Stichmann R. Mapping and Assessing Green Infrastructure Connectivity in European City Regions. Sustainability. 2019; 11(6):1819. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061819Chicago/Turabian Style
Rusche, Karsten, Mario Reimer, and Rico Stichmann. 2019. "Mapping and Assessing Green Infrastructure Connectivity in European City Regions" Sustainability 11, no. 6: 1819. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061819