Next Article in Journal
Ambiguity in the Attribution of Social Impact: A Study of the Difficulties of Calculating Filter Coefficients in the SROI Method
Previous Article in Journal
Development of a Risk Framework for Industry 4.0 in the Context of Sustainability for Established Manufacturers
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2019, 11(2), 385;

Revealing Urban Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission Characteristics and Influencing Mechanisms from the Perspective of Commuting

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
Full-Text   |   PDF [2970 KB, uploaded 14 January 2019]   |  


Commuting to and from work is one of the most important and regular routines using urban transport, being a major source for an increase in transport-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In this study, we explore the characteristics of CO2 emissions from commuter travel in Beijing from different perspectives. A bottom-up approach from a macro perspective is used to analyze recent changing trends of carbon emissions due to commuter travel modes in Beijing, and to identify the main sources of carbon emission increases that affect transportation. To identify CO2 emission characteristics and influencing mechanisms in Beijing, the proportion of commuting modes, commuting distance, and commuting-related CO2 emissions by Ring Roads was analyzed. The commuting-related CO2 emission model, based on Tobit models from the microscopic perspective, was constructed to explore the main factors affecting CO2 emissions of individuals/households. Results show that CO2 emissions due to commuting in Beijing in recent years has presented an increasing trend. In 2014, the amount of CO2 emissions from commuters had already reached the level of 553.68 × 104 t, with CO2 emissions generated by car trips accounting for 75–80% of emissions. Average individual/household commuting-related CO2 emissions on the Ring Road inside the main urban areas of Beijing shows a gradual increasing trend, with the growth trends between the 3rd–5th Ring Road being the largest. Household locations separated by Ring Roads and the occupation type of residents are important factors affecting CO2 emissions. Commuters with access to a car, those having a higher income, and those located in the outer regions of the main urban areas produce more CO2 emissions. To reduce the increasing trend of CO2 emissions in Beijing, it is important that the government accelerates the development of public transport, industry, and residential facilities along the outskirts of the city, along the Ring Road, and along the radix road. View Full-Text
Keywords: commuting CO2 emission; human travel; commuting time; commuting modes; Beijing commuting CO2 emission; human travel; commuting time; commuting modes; Beijing

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, H.; Zeng, W. Revealing Urban Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission Characteristics and Influencing Mechanisms from the Perspective of Commuting. Sustainability 2019, 11, 385.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top