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Article

Performance-Based Evaluation of a Double-Deck Tunnel and Design Optimization

1
Department of Civil Engineering, INHA University, 100, Inha-ro, Nam-gu, Incheon 22212, Korea
2
Energy School, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054, China
3
School of Energy, Construction and Environment, Faculty of Engineering, Environment and Computing, Sir John Laing Building, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 2LT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010201
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
The double-deck tunnel is well known as smart infrastructure because multiple sections can be used for various purposes. Although the stability of a double-deck tunnel is mainly governed by the intermediate slab, the effect of various governing factors on tunnel structural stability has not been fully investigated. In this study, performance-based evaluation method for a double-deck tunnel is suggested as a three-dimensional matrix considering the life cycle of a double-deck tunnel. Moreover, a customized software for design and maintenance of a double-deck tunnel is developed. A structural analysis solver based on a beam–spring model for a double-deck tunnel was embedded in this code. The effects of connection type as well as depth of tunnel, ground stiffness and traffic load on structural behavior of tunnel were investigated. From the analysis, it was found that the connection type between segment lining and intermediate slab significantly affects the behavior of segment lining: simply connected condition causes lesser stress and moment than fully fixed condition. The deeper the tunnel depth, the greater the member force of segment lining. In addition, as both the tunnel depth and the ground stiffness increase, the influence of connection type on the structural stability of the double-deck tunnel becomes insignificant. View Full-Text
Keywords: double-deck tunnel; performance-based evaluation; beam–spring analysis; intermediate slab double-deck tunnel; performance-based evaluation; beam–spring analysis; intermediate slab
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kang, K.-N.; Lee, S.-H.; Song, K.-I.; Liu, L.; Motamedi, S. Performance-Based Evaluation of a Double-Deck Tunnel and Design Optimization. Sustainability 2019, 11, 201. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010201

AMA Style

Kang K-N, Lee S-H, Song K-I, Liu L, Motamedi S. Performance-Based Evaluation of a Double-Deck Tunnel and Design Optimization. Sustainability. 2019; 11(1):201. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010201

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kang, Kyung-Nam, Sang-Hyun Lee, Ki-Il Song, Lang Liu, and Shervin Motamedi. 2019. "Performance-Based Evaluation of a Double-Deck Tunnel and Design Optimization" Sustainability 11, no. 1: 201. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010201

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