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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of the Physical, Chemical and Thermal Properties of Portuguese Maritime Pine Biomass

Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Agrarian Superior School, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, 3504-510 Viseu, Portugal
Departamento de Tecnologia e Inovação, INIAV—Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrícola e Veterinária, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
Maretec Research Centre, Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
C-MAST—Centre for Aerospace Science and Technologies—Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
DEGEIT—Department of Economics, Management, Industrial Engineering and Tourism, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
GOVCOPP—Research Unit on Governance, Competitiveness and Public Policies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2877;
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Systems: From Primary to End-Use)
A characterisation of Pinus pinaster Aiton. (Maritime Pine) woody biomass and ashes is presented in this study. Physical, thermal and chemical analysis, including density, moisture content, calorific value, proximate and ultimate analysis, were carried out. The fuel Energy Density (Ed) and the Fuelwood Value Index (FVI) were assessed by ranking the fuelwood quality. Furthermore, the determination of the ash metal elementals was performed. The results from this study indicated, for Pinus pinaster biomass tree components, carbon content ranging from 46.5 to 49.3%, nitrogen content from 0.13 to 1.18%, sulphur content from 0.056 to 0.148% and hydrogen content around 6–7%. The ash content in the tree components ranged from 0.22 to 1.92%. The average higher heating value (HHV) was higher for pine needles (21.61 MJ·kg−1). The Ed of 8.9 GJ·m−3 confirm the good potential of Pinus pinaster biomass tree components as fuel. The FVI ranked the wood stem (4658) and top (2861.8) as a better fuelwood and pine needles (394.2) as inferior quality. The chemical composition of the ashes revealed that the elemental contents are below the national and most European countries legislation guidelines for the employment of ash as a fertiliser. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomass; Pinus pinaster; fuel; heating value; fuelwood value index; energy density; ash recovery biomass; Pinus pinaster; fuel; heating value; fuelwood value index; energy density; ash recovery
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Filipe dos Santos Viana, H.; Martins Rodrigues, A.; Godina, R.; Carlos de Oliveira Matias, J.; Jorge Ribeiro Nunes, L. Evaluation of the Physical, Chemical and Thermal Properties of Portuguese Maritime Pine Biomass. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2877.

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