Next Article in Journal
Influence of Indigenous Spiritual Beliefs on Natural Resource Management and Ecological Conservation in Thailand
Next Article in Special Issue
Low Redundancy Feature Selection of Short Term Solar Irradiance Prediction Using Conditional Mutual Information and Gauss Process Regression
Previous Article in Journal
Sustainable Waste Tire Derived Carbon Material as a Potential Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Previous Article in Special Issue
Restoration of an Active MV Distribution Grid with a Battery ESS: A Real Case Study
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2841;

Electricity as a Cooking Means in Nepal—A Modelling Tool Approach

Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics, TH Köln (University of Applied Sciences), Betzdorfer Strasse 2, 50679 Cologne, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Power System and Sustainability)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4316 KB, uploaded 10 August 2018]   |  


Cooking energy has an important role in energy demand of Nepal. Over the last decade, import of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) has increased by 3.3 times as an alternate cooking fuel to kerosene and firewood. The growing subsidy burden to endorse modern fuel switching from traditional energy sources and high import of LPG are challenges for sustainability and energy security. This paper analyzes the future residential cooking energy demand and its environmental and economic impacts from 2015 to 2035 using a Long-range Energy Alternative Planning System (LEAP) tool. In 2035, the LPG demand for cooking is projected to be 26.5 million GJ, 16.3 million GJ, 45.2 million GJ and 58.2 million GJ for business as usual (BAU), low growth rate (LGR), medium growth rate (MGR) and high growth rate (HGR) scenarios, respectively. To substitute LPG with electricity in the cooking sector by 2035, an additional 1207 MW, 734 MW, 2055 MW and 2626 MW hydropower installation is required for BAU, LGR, MGR and HGR scenarios, respectively. In the MGR scenario, substituting LPG with electricity could save from $21.8 million (2016) to $70.8 million (2035) each year, which could be used to develop large-scale hydropower projects in the long term. View Full-Text
Keywords: LEAP model; cooking fuel; LPG; electricity; fuel switching; sustainability; clean energy LEAP model; cooking fuel; LPG; electricity; fuel switching; sustainability; clean energy

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bhandari, R.; Pandit, S. Electricity as a Cooking Means in Nepal—A Modelling Tool Approach. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2841.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top