Are the World-Leading Primary Silver Mines Exhausting?
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Production Statistics
4.2. Resources and Reserves
- Silver is one of the rarest metals in nature and one of the most important for many hi-tech applications.
- Investigating the production of primary silver gives to us a good idea of the past and, possibly, future availability of this metal in those primary deposits that virtually have the highest silver ore grades on the earth.
- Until now, no scientific publication has yet been issued to investigate these topics.
- This paper is based on the analysis of primary silver mining statistics of a highly significant sample consisting of twelve of the world’s top fifteen largest primary silver mining sites.
- The findings of our study are that the primary silver mining grade of these twelve big production sites has, gradually and significantly, decreased.
- What is the whole situation about silver reserves and ore grade of the world mines?
- What are the real mining extraction costs of silver?
- Is it true that many mining companies are in economic losses situations?
- What are the historical variations in the extraction costs of the largest silver mines in the world?
Conflicts of Interest
Glossary of Some Technical Terms
|Oz||one troy ounce, equivalent to 31.1035 g; Moz is million ounce;|
|t||tonne (metric ton), equal to 1.1023 short tons, or 2205 pounds;|
|t/d||metric tonnes per day;|
|g/t Ag||grams of silver per tonne of rock;|
|Ore grade||the percentage of silver contained in the extracted mineral;|
|Average yield (in oz/t)||the percentage of silver that is actually produced from the extracted material, due to the specific mining technology of a site.|
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|Mill feed grade||493||453||381||343||331||307||309||307||314||312|
|Measured + Indicated||201.7||160.3||197.4||133.0||124.4||135.1||125.8||119.5||103.5||109.5|
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Ruberti, M.; Massari, S. Are the World-Leading Primary Silver Mines Exhausting? Sustainability 2018, 10, 2619. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082619
Ruberti M, Massari S. Are the World-Leading Primary Silver Mines Exhausting? Sustainability. 2018; 10(8):2619. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082619Chicago/Turabian Style
Ruberti, Marcello, and Stefania Massari. 2018. "Are the World-Leading Primary Silver Mines Exhausting?" Sustainability 10, no. 8: 2619. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082619