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Green City Concept and a Method to Measure Green City Performance over Time Applied to Fifty Cities Globally: Influence of GDP, Population Size and Energy Efficiency

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Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies, (IHS), Erasmus University Rotterdam, (EUR), 3062 PA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies, (IHS) and Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 3062 PA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2031; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062031
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
There are many concepts and methods trying to accommodate the growth of cities without impairing sustainability. However, most are too complex, cannot measure green performance over time and fail to deliver actionable advice to decision-makers. The Green City Concept (GCC) is one of the latest of these concepts. This paper introduces a Green City Conceptual Framework (IHS-GCCF) and a harmonized method to measure Global Green City Performance over time (GGCPI). The IHS-GCCF highlights the importance of energy as a steward of resource efficiency and green performance. IHS-GCCF and GGCPI can be used to measure green performance, to explain possible factors influencing the calculated green performances over time, set targets and track achievements. They are adaptable to individual city needs. By applying the method to fifty cities worldwide through desk research, the paper shows that a green city is also sustainable and liveable. It also shows that GDP influences Green City Performances positively, population size influences it negatively and sanitation and air quality sectors influence green city performance the most. The paper addresses a range of gaps in the green city field. It consolidates prior research into one actionable conceptual framework and method. View Full-Text
Keywords: green city concept; framework; method; green performance over time; sustainability; liveability; GDP; population size; energy green city concept; framework; method; green performance over time; sustainability; liveability; GDP; population size; energy
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Brilhante, O.; Klaas, J. Green City Concept and a Method to Measure Green City Performance over Time Applied to Fifty Cities Globally: Influence of GDP, Population Size and Energy Efficiency. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2031.

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