Next Article in Journal
Two-Stage Coordinate Optimal Scheduling of Seawater Pumped Storage in Active Distribution Networks
Next Article in Special Issue
Rethinking Rural Transformation Caused by Comprehensive Land Consolidation: Insight from Program of Whole Village Restructuring in Jiangsu Province, China
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluating the Potential Business Benefits of Ecodesign Implementation: A Logic Model Approach
Previous Article in Special Issue
Laboratory Experiments of Tradable Development Rights: A Synthesis of Different Treatments
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2013;

Effects of Infrastructure on Land Use and Land Cover Change (LUCC): The Case of Hangzhou International Airport, China

Department of Land Management, Zhejiang University, Yuhangtang Road, 866, Hangzhou 310058, China
Faculty of Law and Economics & Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, University of Greifswald, Soldmannstr. 15, 17487 Greifswald, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [1878 KB, uploaded 14 June 2018]   |  


This paper presents an analysis of the land use and land cover change (LUCC) of major infrastructure construction as exemplified by the case of Hangzhou International Airport (HIA, Hangzhou, China), which is one of the busiest airports in Eastern China. The airport’s effect on LUCC is evaluated by comparing the actual pattern from 1996 to 2001 with a counterfactual simulated land use pattern that would have occurred without the intervention of airport construction. This research is based on land use maps from Landsat images that were analyzed by supervised classification and visual interpretation. To simulate the land use pattern occurring without airport construction, the counterfactual, we applied a cellular automata (CA)–Markov model. Through before and after comparison, we found that cultivated land has decreased and that constructed land has increased because of airport construction. However, according to the counterfactual scenario, airport construction to some extent prevented a decrease in cultivated land and decelerated the expansion of constructed land at a small scale and in the short term. We discuss several reasons for this result, including governmental regulations, such as the setting of the airport clearance area for the safety of plane take-off and landing, the adverse effects of aviation noise or pollution, which may limit the construction activities in the surrounding areas of the airport, and, importantly, the unique land use and land management system in China, mainly the cultivated land requisition-compensation balance policy. We conclude that (1) the counterfactual CA–Markov model simulation is a suitable and unbiased way of evaluating the effect of infrastructure on LUCC that can solve the deficiency in the previous literature relying on before and after comparisons and (2) regulatory, economic, and institutional factors should be considered when explaining and assessing the LUCC due to large infrastructure projects, such as airports, in China and in other countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: infrastructure; counterfactual analysis; LUCC; CA–Markov; Hangzhou International Airport; China infrastructure; counterfactual analysis; LUCC; CA–Markov; Hangzhou International Airport; China

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xiong, C.; Beckmann, V.; Tan, R. Effects of Infrastructure on Land Use and Land Cover Change (LUCC): The Case of Hangzhou International Airport, China. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2013.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top