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Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1659; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051659

A Simulation of Rainwater Harvesting Design and Demand-Side Controls for Large Hospitals

Department of Health Administration, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract

Inpatient health buildings in the United States are the most intensive users of water among large commercial buildings. Large facilities (greater than 1 million square feet) consume an average of 90 million gallons per building per year. The distribution and treatment of water imposes a significant electrical power demand, which may be the single largest energy requirement for various states. Supply and demand-side solutions are needed, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions where water is scarce. This study uses continuous simulations based on 71 years of historical data to estimate how rainwater harvesting systems and demand-side interventions (e.g., low-flow devices, xeriscaping) would offset the demand for externally-provided water sources in a semi-arid region. Simulations from time series models are used to generate alternative rainfall models to account for potential non-stationarity and volatility. Results demonstrate that hospital external water consumption might be reduced by approximately 25% using conservative assumptions and depending on the design of experiment parameters associated with rainfall capture area, building size, holding tank specifications, and conservation efforts. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainability; rainwater; RWH; hospitals sustainability; rainwater; RWH; hospitals
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Fulton, L.V. A Simulation of Rainwater Harvesting Design and Demand-Side Controls for Large Hospitals. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1659.

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