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Article

Life Cycle Assessment of a Highly Diverse Vegetable Multi-Cropping System in Fengqiu County, China

1
College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
2
School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University College Cork, Distillery Fields, North Mall, T23 N73K Cork, Ireland
3
International Ecosystem Management Partnership, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100102, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10040983
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
Agricultural biodiversity usually leads to greater sustainability in production practices. To understand the environmental implications of the development of village-level multi-cropping in rural China, we compared the environmental impact of a highly diverse vegetable multi-cropping system to a conventional wheat/maize rotation system based on the method of life cycle assessment (LCA). Using household level cultivation data, this study examined the gate-to-gate environmental impacts of on-site cultivation practices relating to the production of 10,000 nutrient equivalent units. Results show that vegetable multi-cropping resulted in decreased average land requirement, and diesel, water and electricity usage by 69.8%, 62.2%, 71.7%, and 63.4%, respectively, while average nitrogen (Total N), phosphorus (P2O5), and potassium (K2O) usage in vegetable multi-cropping systems decreased by 16.3%, 42.1%, and 75.8%, respectively. Additional corresponding effects led to a decrease in the total global warming, eutrophication, and acidification potentials from external inputs by 21.6%, 16.7%, and 16.2% of the entire system, respectively. Moreover, the midpoint human toxicity potential from pesticide usage of the vegetable multi-cropping system was lower than that of the conventional system. However, the midpoint eco-toxicity potential from pesticide usage was higher due to certain highly toxic substances, and both human and eco-toxicity potentials from heavy metals were all higher by a few orders of magnitudes. Thus, to mitigate these detrimental consequences, some related measures are proposed for sustainable practices in the future implementation of multi-cropping systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: life cycle assessment; multi-cropping; nutrient equivalent; biodiversity; sustainable development life cycle assessment; multi-cropping; nutrient equivalent; biodiversity; sustainable development
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, L.; Wu, W.; Giller, P.; O’Halloran, J.; Liang, L.; Peng, P.; Zhao, G. Life Cycle Assessment of a Highly Diverse Vegetable Multi-Cropping System in Fengqiu County, China. Sustainability 2018, 10, 983. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10040983

AMA Style

Li L, Wu W, Giller P, O’Halloran J, Liang L, Peng P, Zhao G. Life Cycle Assessment of a Highly Diverse Vegetable Multi-Cropping System in Fengqiu County, China. Sustainability. 2018; 10(4):983. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10040983

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Li, Wenliang Wu, Paul Giller, John O’Halloran, Long Liang, Peng Peng, and Guishen Zhao. 2018. "Life Cycle Assessment of a Highly Diverse Vegetable Multi-Cropping System in Fengqiu County, China" Sustainability 10, no. 4: 983. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10040983

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