Age-friendly Environment Characteristics. The data contain 48 environmental indicators in 9 domains based on the WHO framework including housing, transportation, neighborhood environment, outdoor spaces and buildings, social participation, respect and social inclusion, working environment, communication and information, community and health services. All questions were measured on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (very much).
The assessment of outdoor spaces and buildings contains seven questions. For example, participants were asked to what extent green spaces and outdoor seating are sufficient in number and well-maintained, whether pedestrian crossings are sufficient in number and safe for people with different levels and types of physical ability and whether public toilets are clean, well-maintained, and accessible.
Housing environment was measured with three questions, including “To what extent is your housing equipped with the physical features of housing such as water, heating, and others?”, and “To what extent do you want to modify your house to prevent accidents and alleviate physical inconvenience (i.e., grab bar, anti-slippery device, barrier free device, etc.)?”.
Transportation environment was measured with seven items. For example, participants were asked to what extent public transportation in Seoul is reliable and frequent, whether vehicles are accessible, not overcrowded, and offer priority seating for the elderly and whether voluntary transport service is available where public transportation is limited.
Neighborhood environment was measured with six items. For example, a question asks, “To what extent, in your neighborhood, are many parts of sidewalks, walls, and public facilities ridden with unsightly scribbles?”, and, “To what extent does vandalism occur frequently in my neighborhood?”.
Outdoor space and building was measured with seven items, including “To what extent are walking trails and parks easy to access from my home”, and “To what extent do the sidewalks in my area have smooth surface and are they free of obstructions and safe for me to walk on?”.
Social participation was measured by six items including, “There any many opportunities to participate in various social activities (religious, cultural gatherings, leisure activities, hobbies, etc.), and “There are many opportunities to join volunteer services”.
Respect and Social inclusion was examined with six questions such as “Are older people regularly consulted by public, voluntary and commercial services on how to serve them better?”, and “Are service staff courteous and helpful?”.
Working environment was examined with four items, including “To what extent are career training programs for reemployment available before and after retirement?”, and “It is easy to obtain information about getting a job or starting a business?”.
Communication and information was examined with four questions, including “Do activities and events attract all generations by accommodating age-specific needs and preferences?” and “The information about the community events (e.g., how to participate, how to use facilities, transport routes) is easy to obtain.”.
Community and health services environment was measured with five items, including “To what extent are health and social services conveniently located and accessible by all means of transport?” and, “Is there wide public access to computers and the Internet, at no or minimal charge, in public places as government offices, community centers and libraries?”.
Life Satisfaction. Life satisfaction was measured using eight items that explored multi-dimensional aspects of older-adult life experiences, including satisfaction with health condition, relationships with family and friends, and social and cultural activities and participation. As an example, one question asked participants the extent to which they were satisfied with relationships with their family members. All questions were measured on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (very much). Responses to the eight variables were averaged to create a life-satisfaction indicator (α = 0.78).
Covariates. Gender was coded 0 (men) and 1 (women). Education was measured as categorical variables from 0 (no education), 1 (middle-school graduate or 9 years), 2 (high-school graduate or 12 years) and 3 (some college and higher). Home ownership was coded as 0 (renter) and 1 (home owner). A binary indicator for disability status (0/1) was used. For disability, respondents were asked if they had been diagnosed with any of following health conditions: developmental disorder, brain disorder, visual impairment, hearing impairment, speech impairment, intellectual disorder, autism, psychiatric disorder, a heart disease, a respiratory disease, liver disease, facial disorder, urinary disorder, epileptic disorder, and others.