Next Article in Journal
Investigating Stakeholder Perceptions of Fish Decline: Making Sense of Multiple Mental Models
Previous Article in Journal
Determination of Initial Stiffness of Timber–Steel Composite (TSC) Beams Based on Experiment and Simulation Modeling
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041221

Empirical Study of How Traffic Intensity Detector Parameters Influence Dynamic Street Lighting Energy Consumption: A Case Study in Krakow, Poland

Department of Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
  |  
PDF [2082 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]
  |  

Abstract

The deployment of dynamic street lighting, which adjusts lighting levels to fulfill particular needs, leads to energy savings. These savings contribute to the overall lighting infrastructure maintenance cost. Yet another contribution is the cost of traffic intensity data. The data is read directly from sensor systems or intelligent transportation systems (ITSs). The more frequent the readings are, the more costly they become, because of hardware capabilities, data transfer and software license costs, among others. The paper investigates a relationship between the frequency of readings, in particular the averaging window size and step, and achieved energy savings. It is based on a simulation, taking into account a representative part of a city and traffic intensity data, which span over a period of one year. While the energy consumption reduction is simulated, all data, including each luminaire power setting, induction loop locations and street characteristics, come from a representative sample of the city of Krakow, Poland. Controlling the power settings complies with the lighting standard CEN/TR 13201. Analysis of the outcomes indicates that the shorter the window size or step are, the more energy saving that is available. In particular, for the previous standard CEN/TR 13201 2004, having the window size and step at 15 min results in 26.75% of energy saving, while reducing these values to 6 min provides 27%. Savings are more profound for the current standard (CEN/TR 13201 2014), assuming a 15 min size and step results in 47.43%, while having a 6 min size and step provides 47.69%. The results can serve as a guideline for identifying the economic viability of dynamic lighting control systems. Additionally, it can be observed that the current lighting standard provides far greater potential for dynamic control then the previous standard. View Full-Text
Keywords: dynamic control; graph model; sensor readings; street lighting; traffic intensity data dynamic control; graph model; sensor readings; street lighting; traffic intensity data
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wojnicki, I.; Kotulski, L. Empirical Study of How Traffic Intensity Detector Parameters Influence Dynamic Street Lighting Energy Consumption: A Case Study in Krakow, Poland. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1221.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top