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Open AccessArticle

A Study on the Development and Application of Spatial-TDR Sensor for the Management of Groundwater at Riverside

Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi-si 39177, Korea
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1213; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041213
Received: 10 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management)
For sustainable use of water and land, efficient management of river water and groundwater at riverside is required for development. For this purpose, both the groundwater as well as the unsaturated areas should be measured and managed. However, existing point-type sensors have physical limitations. In this study, we developed a spatial-TDR (Time-Domain reflectometer) sensor and calibration algorithm for efficient management of riverside groundwater and conducted laboratory and field experiments on whether groundwater level and the unsaturated area can be measured. The rod-type probe shown in ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) D 6780-05 was modified into a steel wire-type sensing line so that it could be penetrated into the boring hole. The developed sensing line with steel wire is superior in transport and construction to make observations on the groundwater level, but it requires a separate filtering and calibration procedure because it contains a relatively large amount of noise. The raw data of the electric waveform is filtered by applying the moving-average method and the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The calibration equation for the voltage of electric pulse and degree of saturation of soil calculated in laboratory experiments can be used to calculate the groundwater level and the unsaturated area of the real embankment. The spatial-TDR sensor developed in this study can measure both the groundwater level and the unsaturated area by improving the physical limit of the existing point-TDR sensor of probe-type. Therefore, it can greatly help efficient management of groundwater at riverside. It is necessary to put them into practical use through continuous improvement and experimental verification. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater management; spatial-TDR sensor; line-type sensing line; unsaturated area; filtering and calibration groundwater management; spatial-TDR sensor; line-type sensing line; unsaturated area; filtering and calibration
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Park, M. A Study on the Development and Application of Spatial-TDR Sensor for the Management of Groundwater at Riverside. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1213.

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