Improving green productivity is an important way to achieve sustainable development. In this paper, we use the Global Malmquist-Luenberger (GML) index to measure and decompose the green productivity growth of 18 cities in Xinjiang over 2000–2015. Furthermore, this study also explores factors influencing urban green productivity growth. Our results reveal that the urban green productivity in Xinjiang has slowly declined during the sample period. Technological progress is the main factor contributing to green productivity growth, while improvements in efficiency lag behind. Implementing stricter environmental regulation, improving infrastructure, and appropriately enhancing the spatial agglomeration of economic activities may improve green productivity, while the increase in the size of the industrial base in the near future will likely hinder green productivity growth. Based on these results, this paper puts forward corresponding policy suggestions for the sustainable development of the urban economy in Xinjiang.
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