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Open AccessArticle

Development of Perennial Grain Sorghum

The Land Institute, Salina, KS 67401, USA
Plant Genome Mapping Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605 USA
Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA, [email protected]
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 172;
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies, Advances and Challenges of Breeding Perennial Grain Crops)
Perennial germplasm derived from crosses between Sorghum bicolor and either S. halepense or S. propinquum is being developed with the goal of preventing and reversing soil degradation in the world’s grain sorghum-growing regions. Perennial grain sorghum plants produce subterranean stems known as rhizomes that sprout to form the next season’s crop. In Kansas, breeding perennial sorghum involves crossing S. bicolor cultivars or breeding lines to S. halepense or perennial S. bicolorn × S. halepense breeding lines, selecting perennial plants from F2 or subsequent populations, crossing those plants with S. bicolor, and repeating the cycle. A retrospective field trial in Kansas showed that selection and backcrossing during 2002–2009 had improved grain yields and seed weights of breeding lines. Second-season grain yields of sorghum lines regrowing from rhizomes were similar to yields in the first season. Further selection cycles have been completed since 2009. Many rhizomatous lines that cannot survive winters in Kansas are perennial at subtropical or tropical locations in North America and Africa. Grain yield in Kansas was not correlated with rhizomatousness in either Kansas or Uganda. Genomic regions affecting rhizome growth and development have been mapped, providing new breeding tools. The S. halepense gene pool may harbor many alleles useful for improving sorghum for a broad range of traits in addition to perenniality. View Full-Text
Keywords: grain sorghum; perennial sorghum; ratoon; rhizome; Sorghum halepense; Sorghum propinquum grain sorghum; perennial sorghum; ratoon; rhizome; Sorghum halepense; Sorghum propinquum
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Cox, S.; Nabukalu, P.; Paterson, A.H.; Kong, W.; Nakasagga, S. Development of Perennial Grain Sorghum. Sustainability 2018, 10, 172.

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