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Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010125

Two Scenarios for Landfills Design in Special Conditions Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in Babylon Governorate, Iraq

1
Department of Civil Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, 971 87 Lulea, Sweden
2
Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq
3
Department of Dams and Water Resources Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul 41001, Iraq
4
Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa 51001, Iraq
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 7 January 2018
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Abstract

The sound design of landfills is essential in order to protect human health and the environment (air, water, and soil). The study area, Babylon Governorate, is situated in the middle of Iraq, and is distinguished by a hot climate and shallow groundwater. The governorate did not have landfill sites that meet international criteria; in addition, the groundwater depth in Babylon Governorate is commonly shallow. Previously, the most important criteria for the study area and GIS software were used to select the best sites for locating landfills in the major cities of the governorate. In this study, the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP 3.95D) model was applied in order to ensure that there was no leakage of the leachate that results from the waste in the selected landfill sites. It is the most commonly utilized model for landfill design, and it is used to estimate water inflow through the soil layers. For the present study, to avoid groundwater pollution by leachate from a landfill site due to the shallow groundwater depth, compacted waste was placed on the surface using two height scenarios (2 m and 4 m). This design was developed using the soil properties of the selected sites coupled with the weather parameters in Babylon Governorate (precipitation, temperature, solar, and evapotranspiration) for a 12-year period covering 2005 to 2016. The results from both of the suggested landfill designs showed an absence of leachate from the bottom liner. View Full-Text
Keywords: landfill design; HELP model; solid waste; hot climate; shallow ground water landfill design; HELP model; solid waste; hot climate; shallow ground water
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Chabuk, A.; Al-Ansari, N.; Ezz-Aldeen, M.; Laue, J.; Pusch, R.; Hussain, H.M.; Knutsson, S. Two Scenarios for Landfills Design in Special Conditions Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in Babylon Governorate, Iraq. Sustainability 2018, 10, 125.

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