- freely available
Sustainability 2009, 1(3), 612-627; https://doi.org/10.3390/su1030612
“Development that meets the needs of the current generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.
|Reference||Nationality||Developing Body||Primary Objective||Assessments||Stage for using tool||Comments|
|Author, date||Country of origin||Private consultant, Local authority, State Government, National government, Special body||Commercial tool, Planning Approval, Voluntary guide||Yes/no||Yes/no||Yes/no||Design, Approval process, Post occupancy|
3. Results and Discussion of Assessment Tools
3.1. Key Documents
- the 25 assessment tools could be grouped into the following five categories - urban planning, design, building rating systems, life cycle analysis tools (LCA) and infrastructure tools
- urban planning and building rating systems were the most developed as sustainability assessment tools
- all the assessment tools contained environmental dimensions and most contained either social and/or economic dimensions, and
- none of the assessment tools were truly holistic with regard to coverage of the three dimensions of sustainability
3.2. Identifying What Was Being Measured and How It Was Quantified
3.3. Assessment Tools
- included some measures for the environmental, economical, and social pillars of sustainability
- were relevant in establishing the sustainable performance of urban housing subdivisions, and
- included some audit traceable scoring features.
|Cascadia Scorecard ||A straightforward assessment tool that requires annual review to highlight trends in seven theme areas that relate to a specific geographic area. Although the assessment tool was developed to show trends in the US Pacific North West it could be utilized to capture long term livability of a housing project. One advantage of this tool is that it uses commonly available data.||A. energy use, urban sprawl, wildlife restoration, pollution level |
C. health, population growth
D. economic well-being.
|LEED for Neighborhoods ||A voluntary rating system generally using performance measures in eight theme areas. The system is intended to strike a balance between established practices & emerging concepts. This rating system can be used as a design tool but full LEED certification occurs when construction is complete. Detailed information on units of measure is provided.||A. smart location, linkages, design innovation, green technology |
B. green construction
C. neighborhood pattern & design, accessibility
|OPL ||OPL provides an internationally useable template to address the multi-dimensions of sustainability. A combination of aggregate indices, goal oriented indicators & performance measures are used. Ten theme areas are identified. Targets for short, medium & long term time frames are provided. OPL enables the utilization of currently available metrics to address some broad categories of sustainability but it requires location specific data to be developed in other instances.||A. zero carbon emissions, sustainable transport, sustainable water use, natural habitat & wildlife support |
B. zero waste production, sustainable material use
C. local sustainable food production, culture & heritage support, health & happiness support
D. equity & local economy support.
|SEEDA checklist. ||The checklist highlights best practice & regionally specific sustainability & planning issues. The checklist generally uses performance measures in eight theme areas . The checklist provides little guidance about initial choice of site as it is assumed that the choice of site has already been subjected to formal sustainability appraisal. This checklist is primarily to be used at design stage but could assist in post-occupancy evaluation.||A. climate change & energy, transport & movement, ecology, energy & water efficient building |
B. resources protection
C. community support, sensitive place making
D. support for business.
|SPeAR® ||Goal is to review and optimize sustainable opportunities. SPeAR has the potential to address multiple dimensions of sustainability. Generally performance measures are used in 22 theme areas although these can be added to or subtracted from depending on relevance. The units of measure are very general & thus may give a distorted view of sustainable performance (e.g., 'excellent' is defined as 'targeted or innovative’ or ‘holistic’ or ‘gaining an award’).||A. air quality, land use, water discharge, natural heritage, cultural heritage, building design, building operation, transport infrastructure & affordability |
B. materials use, water use, energy use, waste minimization
C. health, well-being, public form & space, accessibility, amenity
D. employment availability, impact of competition, financial viability.
|VicUrban Masterplanned Community Assessment tool. ||This assessment tool provides a basic framework to assist in planning & delivery of sustainable communities in new developments of mixed use having at least 500 dwellings. It generally uses performance measures in 11 theme areas.||A. energy minimization, water minimization, transport integration, biodiversity protection, atmosphere protection, |
B. sustainable materials choice, waste minimization,
C. community well-being, urban design excellence,
D. housing affordability, commercial success.
3.4. Themes of Assessment Tools
|Tool||Themes and sub-themes|
|Cascadia Scorecard ||Energy Use: per capita consumption of motor fuels, per capita use of energy in buildings|
Sprawl: percentage of residents living in neighbourhoods compact enough to support public transport & walking as alternatives to private car use
Wildlife: five representative species of native wild life are to be restored to one-third or one-half their historical abundance, as proxies for ecological well being,
Pollution: level of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) & PBDEs (polybrominated diphenylethers) in breast milk
|LEED ||Smart location: proximity to water/ waste water infrastructure, endangered species protection, wetland conservation, agricultural land conservation, floodplain avoidance, brown field redevelopment, topography protection/ restoration|
Green technology: on-site energy generation & renewable energy sources, district heating/cooling, infrastructure, energy efficiency & recycled content, waste management for water & construction materials & operation, light pollution reduction
Innovation: in design
Linkages: reduced car dependence, bicycle network, housing/job proximity, school proximity,
|OPL ||Zero carbon: energy efficiency, onsite renewable energy generation supplemented by off site renewable energy|
Sustainable transport: reduce travel need, prioritise sustainable transport modes, future flexibility
Sustainable water: water conservation, water efficiency & recycling, surface water management
Natural habitat & wildlife: net positive contribution to local native biodiversity & natural habitats, financed management plan, comprehensive planting schedule, demonstrate & publicize biodiversity & regeneration activity
|SEEDA checklist ||Climate change & energy: flood control, heat island effect reduced, water efficiency, sustainable energy, site energy management|
Transport & movement: available/accessible public transport, reduce car parking facilities, traffic management, promote cycling
Ecology - conserve native habitats, enhance ecological value, plant ecologically supportive vegetation
Building - comply with EcoHomes/BREEAM or Code for Sustainable Homes
|SPeAR® ||Air Quality—reduce direct/indirect emissions from non-renewables, reduce base line environment, dust & particulate matter, refrigeration & ozone depleters|
Land use -site location, planning intent, context, diversity/mixed use, flood plain, open space, contaminated land
Water discharge - drainage system, risk management of water pollution, sewage treatment
Natural & cultural heritage—habitat conservation, uptake of designated & protected areas, biodiversity, cultural heritage resources, archaeological resources, soil
Design & operation: assessment methods, appropriate technology, EMS accredited to ISO 14001, in-use management, management regime, microclimate, flexibility, refurbishment, LCA impact
Transport: public transport infrastructure, choice of transport, pedestrian/bicycle facilities, green transportation
|VicUrban Masterplanned Community Assessment tool ||Energy - energy efficiency, energy use reduction, renewable energy encouraged, carbon offsetting of infrastructure|
Water - conserve potable water, manage storm water
Transport - integrated with community plan to reduce private car travel
Biodiversity: prevent light spill on to adjacent sites, achieve net gain of native site vegetation
Atmosphere: zero ozone depleting refrigerants, noise reduction strategies
|Tool||Themes and sub-themes|
|Cascadia Scorecard ||None|
|LEED ||Green construction: construction pollution/waste prevention, certified green buildings, energy efficiency, reduced water use, building reuse, minimize site disturbance, contaminant reduction in remediation, stormwater management, heat island reduction, solar orientation.|
|OPL ||Zero waste: solid & liquid waste prevention, re-use, re-cycling|
Sustainable materials: measure embodied CO2 of project materials & use for decision making, reduce embodied GHG impacts from consumer goods
|SEEDA checklist ||Resources: protect heritage, minimize embodied energy of materials, maximise local materials, minimise water use, protect water supplies, encourage composting, reduce noise pollution, minimise construction waste & landfill|
|SPeAR® ||Materials: reduction of materials use, renewable resources, materials re-use, local materials, material specification & supply during|
Water use: water efficiency, water reuse, water monitoring, on-site water sourcing
Energy: energy efficiency, renewable energy, energy monitoring, daylight use
Waste hierarchy: waste avoidance during design/construction, waste reduction, re-use, recycling, hazardous waste management
|VicUrban Masterplanned Community Assessment tool ||Materials: verified environmentally preferred materials|
Waste: recycled & reused during construction, water efficiency
|Tool||Themes and sub-themes|
|Cascadia Scorecard ||Health: life expectancy|
Population: fertility rate
|LEED ||Neighbourhood pattern & design: open community, compact development, diversity of use, diversity of housing types, reduced parking footprint, walkable streets, porous street network, transit facilities, public transport management|
Access to—surrounding vicinity, public spaces, universal design, community outreach programmes, local food production
|OPL||Local & sustainable food: encourage healthy diets high in local, seasonal, organic produce, integrate food growing on site, encourage food waste minimisation, transparent food purchasing systems|
Culture & heritage: site specific community-involved action plan to maintain/ enhance/ revive aspects of local culture & heritage, 2 showcase projects carried out
Health & happiness: assist to create thriving community from development phase to long term occupation -
|SEEDA checklist ||Community: promoting networks & interaction, involving in decision making, supporting public services/social economy & community structure, management assistance|
Place making: efficient land use, location-specific design process, safe/pedestrian friendly form of development, open space, adaptable design, inclusive/ diverse communities, control light spill
|SPeAR® ||Health & well being; lifestyle support facilities, health & fitness recreation facilitiesStakeholder comfort/satisfaction and inclusion/ social responsibility|
Form & space: internal & external security, pedestrian scale, high quality circulation patterns, right to natural daylight
Access: public transport, pedestrian/cyclist facilities, key service facilities, access for physically impaired, local education & training, range of housing types, telecommunication networks
Amenity: landscape, leisure facilities, green space, noise & vibration
|VicUrban Masterplanned Community Assessment tool ||Community well-being: respond to community needs, optimise local employment, integrate & build community capacity|
Urban design excellence: interpret place & context, quality of public realm, diversity of lots whilst maintaining good solar access to public & private spaces, impart a unique sense of place, legible & permeable movement patterns, safe, healthy active life style encouraged, mixture of uses
Housing affordability: widen housing choice, deliver accessible & adaptable design, deliver affordable rental housing, deliver affordable lots, partner to deliver affordable house/land package, minimise ongoing maintenance/ operating costs , reduce transport costs
|Tool||Themes and sub-themes|
|Cascadia Scorecard ||Economy: median income, poverty rate, share of children living below poverty line, unemployment rate|
|LEED ||Affordable: rental and for sale housing|
|OPL ||Equity, fair trade, local economy: employment, inclusiveness, participation & democracy, ownership & affordability|
|SEEDA checklist ||Business: complement/promote local business space, improve connectivity between different businesses, create additional jobs|
|SPeAR® ||Transport: reduce demand for transport infrastructure, accessible & affordable public transport,|
Employment/skills: job creation, investment in skills, equal opportunities, diversity
Competition effects: ethical competition, vitality & regeneration, diversification & choice, local supply chain
Financial viability: secure benefits to stakeholders, risk management, minimise displacement effects
|VicUrban Masterplanned Community Assessment tool ||Commercial success: sound financial management, benefits optimisation, risk assessment & management|
3.5. Units of Measure
- Aggregate indices such as the ecological footprint,
- Headline or core indicators that are few in number and generally relate to high-level policy priorities and decision-making structures,
- Goal-oriented indicators such as the Millennium Development Goal Indicators,
- Performance measure indicators that provide either a comparison between actual and expected results or a method of ranking actual results.
|Tool||Units of measure|
|Cascadia Scorecard ||Headline indicators provide a long term measuring system using generally available metrics. The score is goal-oriented and expressed as the number of years it might take to achieve a target. The target has been established using an international model of best practice.|
|LEED ||Points are allocated to each sub-theme to determine the overall LEED certification level. Certification occurs in 10-point steps with a minimum of 40 points required for basic LEED certification, through silver & gold certification to platinum LEED certification between 80 -106 points. 106 points indicates that all the sub-themes have achieved the maximum number of points available. Sub-themes shown in italics are prerequisites & not included in the point score.|
|OPL ||Overarching targets are to reduce GHG emissions to 0.8 tonnes of CO2/person by 2050, reduce ecological footprint to maximum of 1.5 global hectares/person by 2020 & 1.25 gha/person by 2050, avoid air, water, land pollution in line with international best practice. Specific targets are set for all sub-themes in 1, 5, 10 & 20 year time frames. Targets exceed legal requirements & achieve national best practice in year 1. Targets are either quantifiable goals (e.g., at least 70% of waste by weight generated by residents and commercial operations to be reclaimed, composted or recycled) by 2020 or expressed as exemplar projects to be undertaken (e.g., to score Culture & heritage at least 2 completed case studies should be showcased to demonstrate commitment to global leadership in the field).|
|SEEDA checklist ||SEEDA provides generally performance based targets which are colour coded in four categories—Best, Good, Minimum, Minimum not met. Some scores are in quantifiable 'end states' (e.g., 20% of sanitary fixtures connected to grey water for reuse) allowing measuring of 'distance from target' (i.e., 100% connected to grey water). Others are less specific and provide a 'direction to target'.|
|SPeAR® ||The units of measure are not linked to transparent, broadly agreed objective measures but depend on the Arup assessor team. Each theme is rated on a 7-tier color coded pie chart with tiers ranging from -3 (worst case performance) to +3 (leadership performance) with 0 representing business as usual. Detailed worksheets for sub-themes determine the final score with both quantitative and qualitative values. Weighting given to sub-themes can vary in response to context.|
|VicUrban Masterplanned Community Assessment tool ||Maximum scores are allocated to meet 5 core objectives—commercial success, housing affordability, urban design excellence, community well-being & environment care. Scores are based on quantitative and qualitative criteria for each sub-theme of the core objective. Bonus points are available for each core objective if the initiative is in advance of best practice.|
4. Applying Sustainability Assessments in Perth, Western Australia
|Pillars of sustainability||Themes||Status quo||% improvement|
|Environmental Care||Reduce waste water||All water to main sewer 130 kL/household/a||x|
|Improve soil quality/ natural habitat||Remediation required/poor quality public open space/ poor ecosystem||x|
|Reduce energy use||4745 units electricity/household/a||x|
|Natural Resource Depletion||Reduce mains water consumption||280 kL/household/a||x|
|Construction waste||80 Kg/new dwelling||x|
|Operational waste||470 Kg/household/a||x|
|Societal Well-being||Local food production||Zero food production||x|
5. Conclusions and Recommendations
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