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Open AccessCase Report

Immune Response Failure in Paucisymptomatic Long-Standing SARS-CoV-2 Spreaders

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Department of Internal Medicine, COVID Unit, National Relevance and High Specialization Hospital Trust ARNAS Civico, Di Cristina, Benfratelli, 90127 Palermo, Italy
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Dipartimento di Promozione della Salute, Materno Infantile, Medicina Interna e Specialistica di Eccellenza “G. D’Alessandro”, PROMISE, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
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Dipartimento di Medicina, UOC Medicina Interna iGR, ARNAS Civico, Di Cristina, Benfratelli, Piazza Nicola Leotta, 90127 Palermo, Italy
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Specialized Laboratory of Oncology, National Relevance and High Specialization Hospital Trust ARNAS Civico, Di Cristina, Benfratelli, 90127 Palermo, Italy
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Department of Microbiology and Virology, National Relevance and High Specialization Hospital Trust ARNAS Civico, Di Cristina, Benfratelli, 90127 Palermo, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(1), 151-161; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11010021
Received: 7 December 2020 / Revised: 3 February 2021 / Accepted: 6 February 2021 / Published: 1 March 2021
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread throughout the world. This disease has a spectrum of different clinical pictures with different outcomes. Herein, we report all the data from three paucisymptomatic patients during a hospital stay that might represent a paradigmatic example of the method by which SARS-CoV-2 is shed. We demonstrated the lack of an adequate qualitative and quantitative immune response by multiparametric flow cytometry analysis. Our data can provide a new perspective about the method by which SARS-CoV-2 is shed and the clinical weight of viral persistence. In all three cases, the long persistence of the virus and the consistent reduction in both innate and adaptative immune cells are not associated with greater disease severity. These patients might represent at least part of the population. In particular, one patient oscillated between positive and negative swab tests several times without presenting any immune response. In all three cases, the immune response failure was not associated with a clinically significant involvement, indicating that it is not the virus’s ability to impair the immune system, as well as its presence and persistence the fundamental mechanism that might causally lead to death. Finally, this kind of immune response in paucisymptomatic patients could pose a considerable danger to public health that questions the quarantine period. It is urgent to quantify the phenomenon with a large sample study. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; paucisymptomatic patients; multiparametric flow cytometry; immune system deficiency; COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2; paucisymptomatic patients; multiparametric flow cytometry; immune system deficiency; COVID-19
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MDPI and ACS Style

Corrao, S.; Gervasi, F.; Di Bernardo, F.; Argano, C. Immune Response Failure in Paucisymptomatic Long-Standing SARS-CoV-2 Spreaders. Clin. Pract. 2021, 11, 151-161. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11010021

AMA Style

Corrao S, Gervasi F, Di Bernardo F, Argano C. Immune Response Failure in Paucisymptomatic Long-Standing SARS-CoV-2 Spreaders. Clinics and Practice. 2021; 11(1):151-161. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11010021

Chicago/Turabian Style

Corrao, Salvatore; Gervasi, Francesco; Di Bernardo, Francesca; Argano, Christiano. 2021. "Immune Response Failure in Paucisymptomatic Long-Standing SARS-CoV-2 Spreaders" Clin. Pract. 11, no. 1: 151-161. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11010021

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