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Review

Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Controlled Chaos or Random Walk

by
T. C. Howton
1,
Yingqian Ada Zhan
2,
Yali Sun
1 and
M. Shahid Mukhtar
1,3,*
1
Department of Biology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Campbell Hall 369, 1300 University Blvd., Birmingham, AL 35294-1170, USA
2
Institute for Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Studies, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA
3
Nutrition Obesity Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2015, 6(1), 6191; https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2015.6191
Submission received: 10 September 2015 / Revised: 12 September 2015 / Accepted: 12 September 2015 / Published: 9 February 2016

Abstract

Traditional conventions that a protein’s sequence dictates its definitive, tertiary structure, and that this fixed structure provides the protein with the ability to carry out its designated role(s) are still correct but not for all proteins. Research over the past decade discovered that several key proteins possess intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) that are crucial to their ability to perform specific functions and are observed clustered together within important classes of proteins. In this review, we aim to demonstrate how free energy landscapes, molecular dynamics simulations, and homology modeling are helpful in understanding key conformational dynamics of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Additionally, we use a list of predicted IDPs found in Arabidopsis to identify chromatin organizers and transcriptional regulators as being highly enriched in IDPs. Furthermore, we focus our attention to specific proteins within these families such as HAC5, EFS, ANAC019, ANAC013, and ANAC046. Future studies are needed to experimentally identify additional IDPs and their binding mechanisms.
Keywords: intrinsically disordered regions; Arabidopsis; chromatin organizers; transcriptional regulators intrinsically disordered regions; Arabidopsis; chromatin organizers; transcriptional regulators

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MDPI and ACS Style

Howton, T.C.; Zhan, Y.A.; Sun, Y.; Shahid Mukhtar, M. Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Controlled Chaos or Random Walk. Int. J. Plant Biol. 2015, 6, 6191. https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2015.6191

AMA Style

Howton TC, Zhan YA, Sun Y, Shahid Mukhtar M. Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Controlled Chaos or Random Walk. International Journal of Plant Biology. 2015; 6(1):6191. https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2015.6191

Chicago/Turabian Style

Howton, T. C., Yingqian Ada Zhan, Yali Sun, and M. Shahid Mukhtar. 2015. "Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Controlled Chaos or Random Walk" International Journal of Plant Biology 6, no. 1: 6191. https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2015.6191

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