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Article

Lead and Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation of Proanthocyanidin-Deficient mutants of the Fern Athyrium yokoscense

1
Faculty of Science, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555, Japan
2
Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, Toyama
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2021, 12(1), 9330; https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2021.9330
Received: 26 July 2021 / Revised: 19 November 2021 / Accepted: 19 November 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022

Abstract

The fern Athyrium yokoscense often flourishes around mine sites in Japan and can tolerate and accumulate heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). In this work, we examined whether proanthocyanidins, also called condensed tannins, were involved in the mechanisms of Pb and Cd tolerance and accumulation of A. yokoscense because proanthocyanidins are known to alleviate metal stress in several plant species and are present at high levels in A. yokoscense. For this purpose, we used mutant gametophytes deficient in proanthocyanidins, in which the relative proanthocyanidin contents were 20% of those of the wild-type gametophytes. Although the proanthocyanidin contents of the mutant were quite low, the growth of the mutant was very similar to that of the wild-type gametophytes even in the presence of 80 mg/kg Pb or 48 mg/kg Cd. Under the same conditions, the mutant gametophytes also accumulated Pb and Cd as much as the wild-type gametophytes did. These results indicate that the proanthocyanidins in A. yokoscense are not important for the Pb and Cd tolerance and accumulation properties.
Keywords: Athyrium yokoscense; condensed tannin; flavonoid; heavy metal; proanthocyanidin Athyrium yokoscense; condensed tannin; flavonoid; heavy metal; proanthocyanidin

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kamachi, H.; Morishita, K.; Hatta, M.; Okamoto, A.; Fujii, K.; Imai, N.; Sakatoku, A.; Ohta, T.; Aoki, M.; Hiyama, S. Lead and Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation of Proanthocyanidin-Deficient mutants of the Fern Athyrium yokoscense. Int. J. Plant Biol. 2021, 12, 9330. https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2021.9330

AMA Style

Kamachi H, Morishita K, Hatta M, Okamoto A, Fujii K, Imai N, Sakatoku A, Ohta T, Aoki M, Hiyama S. Lead and Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation of Proanthocyanidin-Deficient mutants of the Fern Athyrium yokoscense. International Journal of Plant Biology. 2021; 12(1):9330. https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2021.9330

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kamachi, Hiroyuki, Kazunori Morishita, Manami Hatta, Ayaka Okamoto, Kazuma Fujii, Naoki Imai, Akihiro Sakatoku, Tamihisa Ohta, Mana Aoki, and Sakurako Hiyama. 2021. "Lead and Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation of Proanthocyanidin-Deficient mutants of the Fern Athyrium yokoscense" International Journal of Plant Biology 12, no. 1: 9330. https://doi.org/10.4081/pb.2021.9330

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