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Article

Bacterial and Fungal Co-Infections and Superinfections in a Cohort of COVID-19 Patients: Real-Life Data from an Italian Third Level Hospital

1
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Unit of Infectious Diseases, University of Catania, I-95122 Catania, Italy
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Department of Biomedical, Dental, Morphological and Functional Imaging Sciences, Unit of Infectious Diseases, University of Messina, I-98124 Messina, Italy
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Unit of Infectious Diseases, ARNAS “Garibaldi”, “Nesima” Hospital, I-95122 Catania, Italy
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Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Unit of Infectious Diseases, University of Catania, I-95123 Catania, Italy
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Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Unit of Infectious Diseases, University of Messina, I-98124 Messina, Italy
6
Unit of Hospital Pharmacy, ARNAS “Garibaldi”, “Garibaldi” Hospital, I-95124 Catania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nicola Petrosillo and Guido Granata
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14(3), 372-382; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14030041
Received: 29 March 2022 / Revised: 7 May 2022 / Accepted: 9 May 2022 / Published: 12 May 2022
The use of immune suppressive drugs combined with the natural immune suppression caused by SARS-CoV-2 can lead to a surge of secondary bacterial and fungal infections. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of superinfections in hospitalized subjects with COVID-19. We carried out an observational retrospective single center cohort study. We enrolled patients admitted at the “Garibaldi” hospital for ≥72 h, with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. All patients were routinely investigated for bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. A total of 589 adults with COVID-19 were included. A total of 88 infections were documented in different sites among 74 patients (12.6%). As for the etiology, 84 isolates were bacterial (95.5%), while only 4 were fungal (4.5%). A total of 51 episodes of hospital-acquired infections (HAI) were found in 43 patients, with a bacterial etiology in 47 cases (92.2%). Community-acquired infections (CAIs) are more frequently caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, while HAIs are mostly associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A high rate of CAIs and HAIs due to the use of high-dose corticosteroids and long hospital stays can be suspected. COVID-19 patients should be routinely evaluated for infection and colonization. More data about antimicrobial resistance and its correlation with antibiotic misuse in COVID-19 patients are required. View Full-Text
Keywords: superinfections; coinfections; bacterial; fungal; COVID-19; hospital-acquired infection (HAI); community-acquired infection (CAI) superinfections; coinfections; bacterial; fungal; COVID-19; hospital-acquired infection (HAI); community-acquired infection (CAI)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ceccarelli, M.; Marino, A.; Pulvirenti, S.; Coco, V.; Busà, B.; Nunnari, G.; Cacopardo, B.S. Bacterial and Fungal Co-Infections and Superinfections in a Cohort of COVID-19 Patients: Real-Life Data from an Italian Third Level Hospital. Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14, 372-382. https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14030041

AMA Style

Ceccarelli M, Marino A, Pulvirenti S, Coco V, Busà B, Nunnari G, Cacopardo BS. Bacterial and Fungal Co-Infections and Superinfections in a Cohort of COVID-19 Patients: Real-Life Data from an Italian Third Level Hospital. Infectious Disease Reports. 2022; 14(3):372-382. https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14030041

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ceccarelli, Manuela, Andrea Marino, Sarah Pulvirenti, Viviana Coco, Barbara Busà, Giuseppe Nunnari, and Bruno Santi Cacopardo. 2022. "Bacterial and Fungal Co-Infections and Superinfections in a Cohort of COVID-19 Patients: Real-Life Data from an Italian Third Level Hospital" Infectious Disease Reports 14, no. 3: 372-382. https://doi.org/10.3390/idr14030041

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