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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Power for traction characterized by normal distributions

HAN University of Applied Sciences, Arnhem, the Netherlands
Eindhoven University of Technology
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(4), 1100-1108;
Published: 28 December 2012
PDF [819 KB, uploaded 18 May 2018]


Most studies on power train design rely on deterministic driving cycles to define the vehicles longitudinal speed. Especially simulations on hybrid propulsion systems use driving cycles to define the speed sequence of the vehicle and backwards calculate the power for traction. Disadvantages of this deterministic approach are the limited value of one driving cycle to represent real-life conditions and the possibility of ’cycle beating’ in optimizations. Observations suggest that the distribution of the power for traction is more easily characterized than the distribution of the speed, as it tends to a bell-shaped curve. This study proposes to approximate the bell-shaped distribution with a normal (Gaussian) distribution when considering sizing hybrid electric propulsion system with a fixed gear ratio. This proposal is motivated from simulations, chassis dynamometer experiments and real-world data. In addition, mean and variance of the normal distribution are linked to the parameters of the vehicle and the properties of the driving cycle under consideration. The resulting characterization of the power for traction with a normal distribution provides a more generic specification for the vehicles power demand than deterministic driving cycles. This simplifies decisions on the sizing power train components and the engineering of the energy management system, as results not only hold for one driving cycle but for all driving conditions that match the same statistical distribution of the power for traction.
Keywords: Driving cycle; Characterization; Power distribution; Power train design; Component sizing Driving cycle; Characterization; Power distribution; Power train design; Component sizing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Tazelaar, E.; Veenhuizen, B.; Van den Bosch, P. Power for traction characterized by normal distributions. World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5, 1100-1108.

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