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Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 33;

Robust Image Embedded Watermarking Using DCT and Listless SPIHT

Department of ECE, K L University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur dist, Andhra Pradesh 522502, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis Javier Garcia Villalba
Received: 3 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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This paper presents a DCT-based (DCT: discrete cosine transform) listless set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) digital watermarking technique that is robust against several common attacks such as cropping, filtering, sharpening, noise, inversion, contrast manipulation, and compression. The proposed technique is made further robust by the incorporation of the Chinese remainder theorem (CRT) encryption technique. Our scheme is compared with the recently proposed CRT-based DCT technique, CRT-based spatial domain watermarking, and DCT-based inter block correlation techniques. Extensive simulation experiments show better robustness in common image manipulations and, at the same time, the proposed technique successfully makes the watermark perceptually invisible. A better Tamper Assessment Function (TAF) value of 2–15% and a better Normalized Correlation (NC) is achieved compared to some of the above techniques. In particular, the proposed technique shows better robustness on compression attacks at moderate to higher compression ratios. It is possible to maintain the imperceptibility and low TAF for various values by doubling the capacity of the watermark. View Full-Text
Keywords: discrete cosine transform; watermarking; cryptography; random number generation; normalized correlation discrete cosine transform; watermarking; cryptography; random number generation; normalized correlation

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Shivani, J.L.D.; Senapati, R.K. Robust Image Embedded Watermarking Using DCT and Listless SPIHT. Future Internet 2017, 9, 33.

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