Design of Relay Switching to Combat an Eavesdropper in IoT-NOMA Wireless Networks
Abstract
:1. Introduction
- (i)
- This study designed a green-and-cooperative IoT wireless network, where IoT relays and IoT devices are powered by solar and communicate using RF.
- (ii)
- To prolong IoT network lifetime, this study adopted SWIPT for EH at coupled relays by applying PS protocol. In particular, the study optimized OP performance of legitimate IoT devices by PS factor optimization in the first-half transmission block time period.
- (iii)
- In the second-half transmission block time period, the EH at the rest IoT relay intercepts the confidential information being exchanged between legitimate IoT devices. For clarity, the study proposed a selected IoT relay for forwarding signal to legitimate IoT devices using EH while another IoT relay for transmitting jamming signals to illegitimate device using EH as well. In this way, the study reached IP performance at an illegitimate device tending to one.
2. System Model and Formulation
2.1. Signal Transmission Block Time Period
Algorithm 1 Algorithm for switching relay selection |
Input: ${R}_{1}\leftarrow 0$; |
${R}_{2}\leftarrow 1$; |
$time\_period\leftarrow random\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">1:9$; |
$selected\_relay\leftarrow random\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">{R}_{1},{R}_{2}$; |
$flag\leftarrow time\_period$; |
Output: The selected relay forwarded legitimate signals while the other relay transmitted jamming signals. |
1: while true do |
2: if $flag!=0$ then |
3: Function_Information_Processing($selected\_relay$); |
4: Function_Forwarding_Signal($selected\_relay$); |
5: Function_Jamming_Signal($!selected\_relay$); |
6: $flag\leftarrow flag-1$; |
7: else |
8: $flag\leftarrow time\_period$; |
9: $selected\_relay\leftarrow !selected\_relay$; |
10: end if |
11: end while |
2.2. Relay Selection Strategy
- (i)
- If variable $flag$ is non-zero, it means that an IoT relay has been selected. The selected IoT relay has to process legitimate information and then forward legitimate information after, while the non-selected IoT relay has to transmit a jamming signal. We counted down variable $flag$.
- (ii)
- If variable $flag$ is zero, it means that the selected IoT relay finishing its obligation. Algorithm 1 swaps obligations between IoT relays and resets variable $flag$.
2.3. Formulations
3. System Performance Analysis
3.1. Outage Probability
Algorithm 2 The algorithm for investigation OP at IoT relay ${R}_{r}$ for $r=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">1,2$ in transmission block $t=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">odd,even$ |
Input: Initialize the parameters as distances ${d}_{S,{R}_{r}}$ and ${d}_{{R}_{r},{D}_{n}}$ ($r=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">1,2$ and $n=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">N,\dots ,1$), path-loss exponent factor $\epsilon $, PA factors ${\alpha}_{i}$ as (9), randomly generate $1\times {10}^{6}$ samples for each fading channel over Rayleigh distribution; |
Output: Simulation (Sim) results of OP at the relay ${R}_{r}$ ($r=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">1,2$). |
1: Calculate SINR at IoT relay ${R}_{r}$ by applying (12)–(15); |
2: Calculate achievable bit-rate at IoT relay ${R}_{r}$ by applying (16) or (17); |
3: Find the minimum of achievable data rate $\underset{i=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">N,\dots ,n}{min}$ by applying (18) or (19); |
4: Initialize variable $count\leftarrow 0$; |
5: for $l=1$ to $1\times {10}^{6}$ samples do |
6: if $\underset{i=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">N,\dots ,1}{min}\ge \mathcal{R}$ then |
7: $count\leftarrow count++$; |
8: end if |
9: end for |
10: return OP at the IoT relay ${R}_{r}$ in transmission block $t=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">odd,even$ as given $O{P}_{{R}_{r}}\left(t\right)=1-count\left./\phantom{count{10}^{6}}\right)\phantom{\rule{0.0pt}{0ex}}{10}^{6}$. |
Algorithm 3 Algorithm for investigation OP at IoT device ${D}_{n}$ in a transmission block $t=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">odd,even$ |
Input: Initialize the parameters as in Algorithm 2; |
Output: Simulation (Sim) results of OP at the IoT device ${D}_{n}$; |
1: Calculate SINR at relay ${R}_{r}$ by applying (12) and (13) for $r=1$ or (14) and (15) for $r=2$; |
2: Calculate achievable bit-rate at relay ${R}_{r}$ as (16) for $r=1$ or (17) for $r=2$; |
3: Find the minimum of achievable data rate $\underset{i=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">N,\dots ,n}{min}$; |
4: Calculate SINR at device ${D}_{n}$ applying (22) and (23) for $t=odd$ or (24) and (25) for $t=even$; |
5: Calculate achievable bit-rate at device ${D}_{n}$ by applying (26) for $t=odd$ or (27) for $t=even$; |
6: Find the minimum of achievable data rate $\underset{i=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">N,\dots ,n}{min}$; |
7: Initialize variable $count\leftarrow 0$; |
8: for $l=1$ to $1\times {10}^{6}$ samples do |
9: if $\left(\right)\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">{R}_{{D}_{n}-{x}_{i}}^{{T}_{2}^{\left(t\right)}}$ then |
10: $count\leftarrow count++$; |
11: end if |
12: end for |
13: return OP at device ${D}_{n}$ in transmission block $t=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">odd,even$ as given $O{P}_{{D}_{n}}\left(t\right)=1-count\left./\phantom{count{10}^{6}}\right)\phantom{\rule{0.0pt}{0ex}}{10}^{6}$; |
3.2. IP at Eavesdropper
3.3. System Throughput Maximization
3.4. PS Factor Optimization and IP Maximization
4. Numerical Results
5. Conclusions
Author Contributions
Funding
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Proof of Theorem 1
Appendix B. Proof of Theorem 2
Appendix C. Proof of Theorem 3
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Studies | Number of Relays | RS | Number of Devices | SWIPT | Jamming Signal |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
[21] | 0 | no | 2 | no | no |
[18] | 1 | no | 2 | yes | no |
[25] | 0 | no | K | no | yes |
[20] | 1 | no | 2 | no | yes |
[33] | 1 | no | 1 | no | yes |
[35] | K | yes | 1 | yes | no |
This study | 2 | yes | N | yes | yes |
Number of devices | $N=3$ |
Distances | ${d}_{S,{R}_{r}}=10$ m, ${d}_{{R}_{r},{D}_{1}}=5$ m, ${d}_{{R}_{r},{D}_{2}}=7$ m, ${d}_{{R}_{r},{D}_{3}}=12$ m, ${d}_{{R}_{r},E}=4$ m |
Path-loss exponent | $\epsilon =4$ |
Channel gains | ${\sigma}_{S,{R}_{r}}=0.01$, ${\sigma}_{{R}_{r},{D}_{1}}=0.04$, ${\sigma}_{{R}_{r},{D}_{2}}=0.0204$, ${\sigma}_{{R}_{r},{D}_{3}}=0.0069$, ${\sigma}_{{R}_{r},E}=0.0625$ |
Fixed bit-rate thresholds | $\mathcal{R}={\mathcal{R}}_{1}={\mathcal{R}}_{2}={\mathcal{R}}_{3}=0.1$ b/s/Hz |
Optimal bit-rate thresholds | $\mathcal{R}=0.499$ b/s/Hz as given by (54) with tolerance factor for $\upsilon =0.001$ |
Fixed PS factor | ${\lambda}_{{R}_{r}}=0.4$ |
PS factor | ${\lambda}_{{R}_{r}}=0.3056$ as given by (55) |
PA factors | ${\alpha}_{1}=0.1667$, ${\alpha}_{2}=0.3333$, and ${\alpha}_{3}=0.5$ as given by [21,37] |
SNRs $\rho $ | $\left(\right)$ dB |
Status of jamming signal | $\delta =1$ |
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Tran, T.-N.; Ho, V.-C.; Vo, T.P.; Tran, K.N.N.; Voznak, M. Design of Relay Switching to Combat an Eavesdropper in IoT-NOMA Wireless Networks. Future Internet 2022, 14, 71. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi14030071
Tran T-N, Ho V-C, Vo TP, Tran KNN, Voznak M. Design of Relay Switching to Combat an Eavesdropper in IoT-NOMA Wireless Networks. Future Internet. 2022; 14(3):71. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi14030071
Chicago/Turabian StyleTran, Thanh-Nam, Van-Cuu Ho, Thoai Phu Vo, Khanh Ngo Nhu Tran, and Miroslav Voznak. 2022. "Design of Relay Switching to Combat an Eavesdropper in IoT-NOMA Wireless Networks" Future Internet 14, no. 3: 71. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi14030071