Blockchain and Fog Based Architecture for Internet of Everything in Smart Cities
- Security: The security in the smart-cities concerned with cyber-security and physical security. In this article, the protection of data from attacks, computing infrastructure, and network are performed using Blockchain technology.
- Caching: Low-latency is one of the vital aspects of smart-city. To achieve this, caching is used to store more frequent data at different locations in a network. Caching also helps to reduce network congestion by avoiding the flow of repeated data on the network. Fog computing with caching enables a variety of applications in smart cities.
- Scalability: This enables elastic services in Fog computing in order to provide the Quality of Service (QoS). Dew computing concepts is applied in the proposed BFAN architecture to provide a fast and scalable cloud-like environment near to the IoE devices.
- Sustainability: The energy-efficient frameworks is the current requirement for smart cities using renewable energy sources. The sustainability aim is to reduce carbon footprints. Nowadays, brown sources produce more than 80% of the energy used in data-centers [7,8]. Therefore, we consider sustainability as a major concern in the article. The proposed BFAN framework helps to reduce the carbon footprint, increase the profit and hardware reliability.
- Context-awareness: An ability to obtains the node locations and information of the environment is called context-awareness. The proposed BFAN framework is context-aware and considers the environment param and node locations to choose the appropriate mode of communication. This add more meaning to the current state-of-the-art for energy efficiency and services of smart cities.
- We have devised a smart city architecture with Blockchain and Fog Computing for every device.
- The resource provisioning model has been presented for FN-to-FN, devices-to-FN and device-devices components.
- The real dataset has been used to evaluate the performance of our proposed BFAN model in various types of communication.
2. Related Work
3. Overview of Smart City Model
4. Blockchain and Fog Based Architecture
4.1. Fog Node Layer
4.2. Internet of Everything Layer
4.3. Blockchain for IoE
4.4. Data Transfer
- The communication between the local devices with sensing and processing capability is known as primary or inter primary communication. These devices can be sensors, laptops, touch-screen devices and computers used for P2P communications. Wi-Fi is used to communicate between IoE devices, where the distance is medium. The inter primary communication takes place with ZigBee and Bluetooth, while the short distance uses TCP/IP medium for inter primary communications.
- The communication between dew computing and Fog Nodes takes place with wireless or wired media. The optic fiber, CAT-5/6 is used for TCP/IP for end-to-end connection.
5. Experiment Evaluation
5.1. Experiment Setup
5.2. Experiment Results
6. Research Directions
Conflicts of Interest
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|Primary||centralized||high||WiFi/4G /5G||fixed/wireless||low||medium||yes||yes||very low|
|Inter- primary||centralized||high||Zigbee/Bluetooth/WiFi||fixed/wireless||very low||high||yes||no||very low|
|Secondary||distributed||very high||5G/4G /WiFi||fixed||low||low||no||yes||low|
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Singh, P.; Nayyar, A.; Kaur, A.; Ghosh, U. Blockchain and Fog Based Architecture for Internet of Everything in Smart Cities. Future Internet 2020, 12, 61. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12040061
Singh P, Nayyar A, Kaur A, Ghosh U. Blockchain and Fog Based Architecture for Internet of Everything in Smart Cities. Future Internet. 2020; 12(4):61. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12040061Chicago/Turabian Style
Singh, Parminder, Anand Nayyar, Avinash Kaur, and Uttam Ghosh. 2020. "Blockchain and Fog Based Architecture for Internet of Everything in Smart Cities" Future Internet 12, no. 4: 61. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12040061