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Open AccessArticle

Evaluating the Degree of Uncertainty of Research Activities in Industry 4.0

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Department of Agriculture, University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 206, I-33100 Udine, Italy
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Centro Ricerche e Studi dei Laghi, Corso di Porta Vittoria 31, I-20122 Milano, Italy
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SEA TUSCIA, Tuscia University, Via San Camillo de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
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Department of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences (DAFNE), Tuscia University, Via San Camillo de Lellis, snc, I-01100 Viterbo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Future Internet 2019, 11(9), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11090196
Received: 5 August 2019 / Revised: 27 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
Research and development (R&D) are always oriented towards new discoveries, based on original terms or hypotheses, and their concluding outcomes are often uncertain. The present work focused on the degree of uncertainty for R&D activities. In fact, uncertainty makes it difficult to quantify the time and resources needed to achieve a final outcome, create a work plan and budget, and finalize the resulting “innovative” products or services that could be transferred or exchanged in a specific market. The present work attempts to indicate the degree of uncertainty of the research activities developed by a set of firms. The method used aimed to quantify the five criteria defined by the Manual of Frascati. Through the creation of an uncertainty cloud, a cone of uncertainty was defined following an approach based on project management. The evaluation grid was characterized by the decomposition of the different variables divided into quartiles, which allowed for the detection of the evolution of the project and each of its component. The ancillary objective aim was to also observe the development degree of these industries towards a framework of Industry 4.0. View Full-Text
Keywords: degree of uncertainty; research; firms; Industry 4.0 degree of uncertainty; research; firms; Industry 4.0
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cividino, S.; Egidi, G.; Zambon, I.; Colantoni, A. Evaluating the Degree of Uncertainty of Research Activities in Industry 4.0. Future Internet 2019, 11, 196.

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