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Plasma-Enabled Smart Nanoexosome Platform as Emerging Immunopathogenesis for Clinical Viral Infection

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei City 106335, Taiwan
2
Nanomaterials and Polymer Nanocomposites Laboratory, School of Engineering, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada
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Biotechnology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz 71468-64685, Iran
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Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71468-64685, Iran
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Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), Institute for Advanced Studies (IAS), Universiti Malaya (UM), Level 3, Block A, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Berna Özkale Edelmann and Lucio Barile
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(5), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14051054
Received: 14 April 2022 / Revised: 8 May 2022 / Accepted: 11 May 2022 / Published: 13 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Nanomaterials for Biomedicine)
Smart nanoexosomes are nanosized structures enclosed in lipid bilayers that are structurally similar to the viruses released by a variety of cells, including the cells lining the respiratory system. Of particular importance, the interaction between smart nanoexosomes and viruses can be used to develop antiviral drugs and vaccines. It is possible that nanoexosomes will be utilized and antibodies will be acquired more successfully for the transmission of an immune response if reconvalescent plasma (CP) is used instead of reconvalescent plasma exosomes (CPExo) in this concept. Convalescent plasma contains billions of smart nanoexosomes capable of transporting a variety of molecules, including proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA among other viral infections. Smart nanoexosomes are released from virus-infected cells and play an important role in mediating communication between infected and uninfected cells. Infections use the formation, production and release of smart nanoexosomes to enhance the infection, transmission and intercellular diffusion of viruses. Cell-free smart nanoexosomes produced by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could also be used as cell-free therapies in certain cases. Smart nanoexosomes produced by mesenchymal stem cells can also promote mitochondrial function and heal lung injury. They can reduce cytokine storms and restore the suppression of host antiviral defenses weakened by viral infections. This study examines the benefits of smart nanoexosomes and their roles in viral transmission, infection, treatment, drug delivery and clinical applications. We also explore some potential future applications for smart nanoexosomes in the treatment of viral infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: viral infections; convalescent plasma; smart nanoexosomes; drug delivery viral infections; convalescent plasma; smart nanoexosomes; drug delivery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mousavi, S.M.; Hashemi, S.A.; Gholami, A.; Kalashgrani, M.Y.; Vijayakameswara Rao, N.; Omidifar, N.; Hsiao, W.W.-W.; Lai, C.W.; Chiang, W.-H. Plasma-Enabled Smart Nanoexosome Platform as Emerging Immunopathogenesis for Clinical Viral Infection. Pharmaceutics 2022, 14, 1054. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14051054

AMA Style

Mousavi SM, Hashemi SA, Gholami A, Kalashgrani MY, Vijayakameswara Rao N, Omidifar N, Hsiao WW-W, Lai CW, Chiang W-H. Plasma-Enabled Smart Nanoexosome Platform as Emerging Immunopathogenesis for Clinical Viral Infection. Pharmaceutics. 2022; 14(5):1054. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14051054

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mousavi, Seyyed M., Seyyed A. Hashemi, Ahmad Gholami, Masoomeh Y. Kalashgrani, Neralla Vijayakameswara Rao, Navid Omidifar, Wesley W.-W. Hsiao, Chin W. Lai, and Wei-Hung Chiang. 2022. "Plasma-Enabled Smart Nanoexosome Platform as Emerging Immunopathogenesis for Clinical Viral Infection" Pharmaceutics 14, no. 5: 1054. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14051054

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