Next Article in Journal
Efficacy of Polymer-Based Nanomedicine for the Treatment of Brain Cancer
Next Article in Special Issue
Royal Jelly as a Nutraceutical Natural Product with a Focus on Its Antibacterial Activity
Previous Article in Journal
Chitooligosaccharides Improve the Efficacy of Checkpoint Inhibitors in a Mouse Model of Lung Cancer
Previous Article in Special Issue
Anti-Candida Properties of Gossypium hirsutum L.: Enhancement of Fungal Growth, Biofilm Production and Antifungal Resistance
Article

Phytopigment Alizarin Inhibits Multispecies Biofilm Development by Cutibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans

1
School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea
2
School of Food & Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710021, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Kathryn J. Steadman
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(5), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14051047
Received: 22 March 2022 / Revised: 10 May 2022 / Accepted: 11 May 2022 / Published: 12 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Application)
Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease involving Cutibacterium acnes with other skin commensals such as Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans in the anaerobic and lipid-rich conditions of pilosebaceous units. These microbes readily form multispecies biofilms that are tolerant of traditional antibiotics as well as host immune systems. The phytopigment alizarin was previously found to prevent biofilm formation by S. aureus and C. albicans strains under aerobic conditions. Hence, we hypothesized that alizarin might control C. acnes and multispecies biofilm development. We found that under anaerobic conditions, alizarin efficiently inhibited single biofilm formation and multispecies biofilm development by C. acnes, S. aureus, and C. albicans without inhibiting planktonic cell growth. Alizarin increased the hydrophilicities of S. aureus and C. albicans cells, decreased lipase production by S. aureus, diminished agglutination by C. acnes, and inhibited the aggregation of C. albicans cells. Furthermore, the co-administration of alizarin and antibiotics enhanced the antibiofilm efficacies of alizarin against C. acnes. A transcriptomic study showed that alizarin repressed the transcriptions of various biofilm-related genes such as lipase, hyaluronate lyase, adhesin/invasion-related, and virulence-related genes of C. acnes. Furthermore, alizarin at 100 µg/mL prevented C. acnes biofilm development on porcine skin. Our results show that alizarin inhibits multispecies biofilm development by acne-causing microbes and suggest it might be a useful agent for treating or preventing C. acnes-causing skin diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: alizarin; antibiofilm; Candida albicans; Cutibacterium acnes; multispecies biofilms; Staphylococcus aureus alizarin; antibiofilm; Candida albicans; Cutibacterium acnes; multispecies biofilms; Staphylococcus aureus
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.-H.; Kim, Y.-G.; Park, S.; Hu, L.; Lee, J. Phytopigment Alizarin Inhibits Multispecies Biofilm Development by Cutibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Pharmaceutics 2022, 14, 1047. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14051047

AMA Style

Lee J-H, Kim Y-G, Park S, Hu L, Lee J. Phytopigment Alizarin Inhibits Multispecies Biofilm Development by Cutibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Pharmaceutics. 2022; 14(5):1047. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14051047

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Jin-Hyung, Yong-Guy Kim, Sunyoung Park, Liangbin Hu, and Jintae Lee. 2022. "Phytopigment Alizarin Inhibits Multispecies Biofilm Development by Cutibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans" Pharmaceutics 14, no. 5: 1047. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14051047

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop