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Article

Optimised Electroporation for Loading of Extracellular Vesicles with Doxorubicin

1
Division of Biomolecular and Cellular Medicine (BCM), Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, 14157 Huddinge, Sweden
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Erbil 44001, Iraq
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Milos Kojic, Arturas Ziemys and Miljan Milosevic
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14010038
Received: 24 October 2021 / Revised: 13 December 2021 / Accepted: 22 December 2021 / Published: 24 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery as Molecular Transport through Biological Barriers)
The clinical use of chemotherapeutics is limited by several factors, including low cellular uptake, short circulation time, and severe adverse effects. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been suggested as a drug delivery platform with the potential to overcome these limitations. EVs are cell-derived, lipid bilayer nanoparticles, important for intercellular communication. They can transport bioactive cargo throughout the body, surmount biological barriers, and target a variety of tissues. Several small molecule drugs have been successfully incorporated into the lumen of EVs, permitting efficient transport to tumour tissue, increasing therapeutic potency, and reducing adverse effects. However, the cargo loading is often inadequate and refined methods are a prerequisite for successful utilisation of the platform. By systematically evaluating the effect of altered loading parameters for electroporation, such as total number of EVs, drug to EV ratio, buffers, pulse capacitance, and field strength, we were able to distinguish tendencies and correlations. This allowed us to design an optimised electroporation protocol for loading EVs with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. The loading technique demonstrated improved cargo loading and EV recovery, as well as drug potency, with a 190-fold increased response compared to naked doxorubicin. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; doxorubicin; optimisation; electroporation; loading; chemotherapeutics; cytotoxins; intercellular transport; drug delivery platform; EV thawing temperature extracellular vesicles; exosomes; doxorubicin; optimisation; electroporation; loading; chemotherapeutics; cytotoxins; intercellular transport; drug delivery platform; EV thawing temperature
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lennaárd, A.J.; Mamand, D.R.; Wiklander, R.J.; EL Andaloussi, S.; Wiklander, O.P.B. Optimised Electroporation for Loading of Extracellular Vesicles with Doxorubicin. Pharmaceutics 2022, 14, 38. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14010038

AMA Style

Lennaárd AJ, Mamand DR, Wiklander RJ, EL Andaloussi S, Wiklander OPB. Optimised Electroporation for Loading of Extracellular Vesicles with Doxorubicin. Pharmaceutics. 2022; 14(1):38. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14010038

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lennaárd, Angus J., Doste R. Mamand, Rim J. Wiklander, Samir EL Andaloussi, and Oscar P.B. Wiklander. 2022. "Optimised Electroporation for Loading of Extracellular Vesicles with Doxorubicin" Pharmaceutics 14, no. 1: 38. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14010038

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