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Article

Endothelial-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Induce Cerebrovascular Dysfunction in Inflammation

1
School of Life, Health and Chemical Sciences, Biomedical Research Network, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK
2
Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086, Australia
3
Amsterdam UMC, Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, MS Centre Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1117 VU University, 1081 HZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
4
Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
5
Academic Department of Neuroscience and Sheffield NIHR Translational Neuroscience BRC, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK
6
Department of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xavier Declèves
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(9), 1525; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13091525
Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 3 September 2021 / Accepted: 7 September 2021 / Published: 21 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Barriers in Health and Disease)
Blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a key hallmark in the pathology of many neuroinflammatory disorders. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid membrane-enclosed carriers of molecular cargo that are involved in cell-to-cell communication. Circulating endothelial EVs are increased in the plasma of patients with neurological disorders, and immune cell-derived EVs are known to modulate cerebrovascular functions. However, little is known about whether brain endothelial cell (BEC)-derived EVs themselves contribute to BBB dysfunction. Human cerebral microvascular cells (hCMEC/D3) were treated with TNFα and IFNy, and the EVs were isolated and characterised. The effect of EVs on BBB transendothelial resistance (TEER) and leukocyte adhesion in hCMEC/D3 cells was measured by electric substrate cell-substrate impedance sensing and the flow-based T-cell adhesion assay. EV-induced molecular changes in recipient hCMEC/D3 cells were analysed by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. A stimulation of naïve hCMEC/D3 cells with small EVs (sEVs) reduced the TEER and increased the shear-resistant T-cell adhesion. The levels of microRNA-155, VCAM1 and ICAM1 were increased in sEV-treated hCMEC/D3 cells. Blocking the expression of VCAM1, but not of ICAM1, prevented sEV-mediated T-cell adhesion to brain endothelia. These results suggest that sEVs derived from inflamed BECs promote cerebrovascular dysfunction. These findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms involving neuroinflammatory disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood–brain barrier; cell-to-cell communication; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; neuroinflammation blood–brain barrier; cell-to-cell communication; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; neuroinflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Roig-Carles, D.; Willms, E.; Fontijn, R.D.; Martinez-Pacheco, S.; Mäger, I.; de Vries, H.E.; Hirst, M.; Sharrack, B.; Male, D.K.; Hawkes, C.A.; Romero, I.A. Endothelial-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Induce Cerebrovascular Dysfunction in Inflammation. Pharmaceutics 2021, 13, 1525. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13091525

AMA Style

Roig-Carles D, Willms E, Fontijn RD, Martinez-Pacheco S, Mäger I, de Vries HE, Hirst M, Sharrack B, Male DK, Hawkes CA, Romero IA. Endothelial-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Induce Cerebrovascular Dysfunction in Inflammation. Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(9):1525. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13091525

Chicago/Turabian Style

Roig-Carles, David, Eduard Willms, Ruud D. Fontijn, Sarai Martinez-Pacheco, Imre Mäger, Helga E. de Vries, Mark Hirst, Basil Sharrack, David K. Male, Cheryl A. Hawkes, and Ignacio A. Romero. 2021. "Endothelial-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Induce Cerebrovascular Dysfunction in Inflammation" Pharmaceutics 13, no. 9: 1525. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13091525

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