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Article

3D Printed Punctal Plugs for Controlled Ocular Drug Delivery

1
Department of Pharmaceutics, UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK
2
Departamento de Farmacología, Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, I+D Farma (GI-1645), Facultad de Farmacia and Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
3
FabRx Ltd., Henwood House, Henwood, Ashford, Kent TN24 8DH, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dimitrios A. Lamprou
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(9), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13091421
Received: 13 August 2021 / Revised: 2 September 2021 / Accepted: 3 September 2021 / Published: 8 September 2021
Dry eye disease is a common ocular disorder that is characterised by tear deficiency or excessive tear evaporation. Current treatment involves the use of eye drops; however, therapeutic efficacy is limited because of poor ocular bioavailability of topically applied formulations. In this study, digital light processing (DLP) 3D printing was employed to develop dexamethasone-loaded punctal plugs. Punctal plugs with different drug loadings were fabricated using polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) to create a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN). Drug-loaded punctal plugs were characterised in terms of physical characteristics (XRD and DSC), potential drug-photopolymer interactions (FTIR), drug release profile, and cytocompatibility. In vitro release kinetics of the punctal plugs were evaluated using an in-house flow rig model that mimics the subconjunctival space. The results showed sustained release of dexamethasone for up to 7 days from punctal plugs made with 20% w/w PEG 400 and 80% w/w PEGDA, while punctal plugs made with 100% PEGDA exhibited prolonged releases for more than 21 days. Herein, our study demonstrates that DLP 3D printing represents a potential manufacturing platform for fabricating personalised drug-loaded punctal plugs with extended release characteristics for ocular administration. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; vat photopolymerization; digital light processing; printing pharmaceuticals and devices; punctal plugs; ocular drug delivery; personalized medicines; dry eye additive manufacturing; vat photopolymerization; digital light processing; printing pharmaceuticals and devices; punctal plugs; ocular drug delivery; personalized medicines; dry eye
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, X.; Awwad, S.; Diaz-Gomez, L.; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C.; Brocchini, S.; Gaisford, S.; Goyanes, A.; Basit, A.W. 3D Printed Punctal Plugs for Controlled Ocular Drug Delivery. Pharmaceutics 2021, 13, 1421. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13091421

AMA Style

Xu X, Awwad S, Diaz-Gomez L, Alvarez-Lorenzo C, Brocchini S, Gaisford S, Goyanes A, Basit AW. 3D Printed Punctal Plugs for Controlled Ocular Drug Delivery. Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(9):1421. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13091421

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xu, Xiaoyan, Sahar Awwad, Luis Diaz-Gomez, Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo, Steve Brocchini, Simon Gaisford, Alvaro Goyanes, and Abdul W. Basit. 2021. "3D Printed Punctal Plugs for Controlled Ocular Drug Delivery" Pharmaceutics 13, no. 9: 1421. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13091421

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