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Article

Molecular-Level Release of Coumarin-3-Carboxylic Acid and Warfarin-Derivatives from BSA-Based Hydrogels

1
Institute of Chemistry, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 4, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
2
Institute of Pharmacy, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katona Gábor
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101661
Received: 1 September 2021 / Revised: 1 October 2021 / Accepted: 2 October 2021 / Published: 11 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Albumin-Based Drug Delivery Systems)
This investigation aimed at developing BSA hydrogels as a controlled release system to study the release behavior of spin-labeled coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (SL-CCS) and warfarin (SL-WFR). The release profiles of these spin-labeled (SL-) pharmaceuticals from BSA hydrogels prepared with different procedures are compared in detail. The mechanical properties of the gels during formation and release were studied via rheology, while a nanoscopic view on the release behavior was achieved by analyzing SL-drugs–BSA interaction using continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW EPR) spectroscopy. The influence of type of drug, drug concentration, duration of gel formation, and gelation methods on release behavior were characterized by CW EPR spectroscopy, EPR imaging (EPRI), and dynamic light scattering (DLS), which provide information on the interaction of BSA with SL-drugs, the percentage of drug inside the hydrogel and the nature and size of the released structures, respectively. We found that the release rate of SL-CCS and SL-WFR from BSA hydrogels is tunable through drug ratios, hydrogel incubation time and gelation procedures. All of the results indicate that BSA hydrogels can be potentially exploited in controlled drug delivery applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: albumin; hydrogels; EPR/ESR spectroscopy; release behavior albumin; hydrogels; EPR/ESR spectroscopy; release behavior
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sanaeifar, N.; Mäder, K.; Hinderberger, D. Molecular-Level Release of Coumarin-3-Carboxylic Acid and Warfarin-Derivatives from BSA-Based Hydrogels. Pharmaceutics 2021, 13, 1661. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101661

AMA Style

Sanaeifar N, Mäder K, Hinderberger D. Molecular-Level Release of Coumarin-3-Carboxylic Acid and Warfarin-Derivatives from BSA-Based Hydrogels. Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(10):1661. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101661

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sanaeifar, Niuosha, Karsten Mäder, and Dariush Hinderberger. 2021. "Molecular-Level Release of Coumarin-3-Carboxylic Acid and Warfarin-Derivatives from BSA-Based Hydrogels" Pharmaceutics 13, no. 10: 1661. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101661

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