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Open AccessArticle

Superhydrophobic Substrates for Ultrahigh Encapsulation of Hydrophilic Drug into Controlled-Release Polyelectrolyte Complex Beads: Statistical Optimization and In Vivo Evaluation

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Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt
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Department of Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Technology, College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060257
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 25 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
In this work, ultrahigh drug-loaded chitosan (Ch)/K-carrageenan (Kc) polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) beads were formed in situ by cross-linking in a glutaraldehyde-saturated atmosphere and were prepared on superhydrophobic substrates fabricated by spraying glass surfaces with ready-made spray for domestic use (NeverWet®). Verapamil hydrochloride (VP), a highly hydrophilic drug with a short biological half-life, was incorporated into a series of Ch-based and/or Ch/Kc-PEC-based beads to control its release profile in vivo. The formulation of VP-loaded beads was optimized using stepwise statistical designs based on a prespecified criterion. Several characteristics of the prepared beads, such as entrapment efficiency (EE%), in vitro drug release, swelling ratio, size and surface microstructure as well as molecular interactions between the drug and formulation ingredients, were investigated. In vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) studies were carried out using the rabbit model to study the ability of the optimized VP-loaded beads to control the absorption rate of VP. Results revealed that the prepared superhydrophobic substrates were able to fabricate VP-loaded beads with extremely high EE exceeding 90% w/w compared to only 27.80% when using conventional ionotropic gelation technique. PK results showed that the rate of VP absorption was well controlled following oral administration of the optimized beads to six rabbits compared to a marketed VP immediate release (IR) tablet, as evidenced by a 2.2-fold increase in mean residence time (MRT) and 5.24-fold extension in half value duration (HVD) over the marketed product without any observed reduction in the relative oral bioavailability. View Full-Text
Keywords: superhydrophobic substrates; glass surfaces; chitosan; K-carrageenan; polyelectrolyte complex; in vivo absorption study superhydrophobic substrates; glass surfaces; chitosan; K-carrageenan; polyelectrolyte complex; in vivo absorption study
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Yousry, C.; Ahmed, I.S.; Amin, M.M.; El Gazayerly, O.N. Superhydrophobic Substrates for Ultrahigh Encapsulation of Hydrophilic Drug into Controlled-Release Polyelectrolyte Complex Beads: Statistical Optimization and In Vivo Evaluation. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 257.

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