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Open AccessArticle

Application of Direct Sonoporation from a Defined Surface Area of the Peritoneum: Evaluation of Transfection Characteristics in Mice

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Informatics, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki-shi, Nagasaki 852-8588, Japan
2
Department of Pharmaceutics, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki-shi, Nagasaki 852-8588, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(5), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11050244
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano-Bubbles as a New Ultrasound Imaging and Drug Delivery Tool)
In the present study, we developed a sonoporation system, namely “direct sonoporation”, for transfecting the peritoneum from a defined surface area to avoid systematic side effects. Here, the transfection characteristics are explained because there is less information about direct sonoporation. Naked pDNA and nanobubbles were administered to diffusion cell attached to the visceral and parietal peritoneum from the liver and peritoneal wall surface, respectively. Then, ultrasound was irradiated. Direct sonoporation showed a higher transfection efficacy at the applied peritoneum site from the liver surface while other sites were not detected. Moreover, transgene expression was observed in the peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) at the applied peritoneum site. No abnormality was observed in the inner part of the liver. Although transgene expression of the visceral peritoneum was tenfold higher than that of the parietal peritoneum, transgene expression was observed in the PMCs on both the applied peritoneum sites. These results suggest that direct sonoporation is a site-specific transfection method of the PMCs on the applied peritoneum site without transgene expression at other sites and show little toxicity in the inner tissues at the applied site via cavitation energy. This information is valuable for the development of an intraperitoneal sonoporation device for treatment of peritoneal diseases such as peritoneal fibrosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanobubbles; ultrasound; sonoporation; gene transfection; peritoneal mesothelial cells nanobubbles; ultrasound; sonoporation; gene transfection; peritoneal mesothelial cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nishimura, K.; Yonezawa, K.; Fumoto, S.; Miura, Y.; Hagimori, M.; Nishida, K.; Kawakami, S. Application of Direct Sonoporation from a Defined Surface Area of the Peritoneum: Evaluation of Transfection Characteristics in Mice. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 244.

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