In recent years, many attempts have been made to enhance the drug bioavailability and therapeutic effectiveness of oral dosage forms. In this context, various gastroretentive drug delivery systems (GRDDS) have been used to improve the therapeutic efficacy of drugs that have a narrow absorption window, are unstable at alkaline pH, are soluble in acidic conditions, and are active locally in the stomach. In this review, we discuss the physiological state of the stomach and various factors that affect GRDDS. Recently applied gastrointestinal technologies such as expandable, superporous hydrogel; bio/mucoadhesive, magnetic, ion-exchange resin; and low- and high-density-systems have also been examined along with their merits and demerits. The significance of in vitro and in vivo evaluation parameters of various GRDDS is summarized along with their applications. Moreover, future perspectives on this technology are discussed to minimize the gastric emptying rate in both the fasted and fed states. Overall, this review may inform and guide formulation scientists in designing the GRDDS.
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