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Vertebrate Reservoirs of Arboviruses: Myth, Synonym of Amplifier, or Reality?

1
Formerly at the Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, USA
2
Faculty of Medical Sciences, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
3
Division of Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, PathWest, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009
4
Institute of Virology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Helmut-Ruska-Haus, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
5
Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, 60365 Brno, Czech Republic
6
Department of Virology, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 3, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
7
Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Rd., Singapore 169857 Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2017, 9(7), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/v9070185
Received: 19 May 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Viruses)
The rapid succession of the pandemic of arbovirus diseases, such as dengue, West Nile fever, chikungunya, and Zika fever, has intensified research on these and other arbovirus diseases worldwide. Investigating the unique mode of vector-borne transmission requires a clear understanding of the roles of vertebrates. One major obstacle to this understanding is the ambiguity of the arbovirus definition originally established by the World Health Organization. The paucity of pertinent information on arbovirus transmission at the time contributed to the notion that vertebrates played the role of reservoir in the arbovirus transmission cycle. Because this notion is a salient feature of the arbovirus definition, it is important to reexamine its validity. This review addresses controversial issues concerning vertebrate reservoirs and their role in arbovirus persistence in nature, examines the genesis of the problem from a historical perspective, discusses various unresolved issues from multiple points of view, assesses the present status of the notion in light of current knowledge, and provides options for a solution to resolve the issue. View Full-Text
Keywords: insect-specific virus; arbovirus; transmission mechanism; vertebrate reservoir; origin of arbovirus; virus maintenance; zoonosis; host range insect-specific virus; arbovirus; transmission mechanism; vertebrate reservoir; origin of arbovirus; virus maintenance; zoonosis; host range
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Kuno, G.; Mackenzie, J.S.; Junglen, S.; Hubálek, Z.; Plyusnin, A.; Gubler, D.J. Vertebrate Reservoirs of Arboviruses: Myth, Synonym of Amplifier, or Reality? Viruses 2017, 9, 185.

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