Next Article in Journal
The Influence of E1A C-Terminus on Adenovirus Replicative Cycle
Previous Article in Journal
Implication of Different HIV-1 Genes in the Modulation of Autophagy
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2017, 9(12), 385;

Mutations in HPV18 E1^E4 Impact Virus Capsid Assembly, Infectivity Competence, and Maturation

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2865 KB, uploaded 19 December 2017]   |  


The most highly expressed protein during the productive phase of the human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle is E1^E4. Its full role during infection remains to be established. HPV E1^E4 is expressed during both the early and late stages of the virus life cycle and contributes to viral genome amplification. In an attempt to further outline the functions of E1^E4, and determine whether it plays a role in viral capsid assembly and viral infectivity, we examined wild-type E1^E4 as well as four E1^E4 truncation mutants. Our study revealed that HPV18 genomes containing the shortest truncated form of E1^E4, the 17/18 mutant, produced viral titers that were similar to wild-type virus and significantly higher compared to virions containing the three longer E1^E4 mutants. Additionally, the infectivity of virus containing the shortest E1^E4 mutation was equivalent to wild-type and significantly higher than the other three mutants. In contrast, infectivity was completely abrogated for virus containing the longer E1^E4 mutants, regardless of virion maturity. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that HPV18 E1^E4 impacts capsid assembly and viral infectivity as well as virus maturation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Human Papillomavirus (HPV); HPV18; infection; viral titer; virion maturation; E1^E4 Human Papillomavirus (HPV); HPV18; infection; viral titer; virion maturation; E1^E4

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Biryukov, J.; Myers, J.C.; McLaughlin-Drubin, M.E.; Griffin, H.M.; Milici, J.; Doorbar, J.; Meyers, C. Mutations in HPV18 E1^E4 Impact Virus Capsid Assembly, Infectivity Competence, and Maturation. Viruses 2017, 9, 385.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top