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Viruses 2016, 8(8), 209;

NXT1, a Novel Influenza A NP Binding Protein, Promotes the Nuclear Export of NP via a CRM1-Dependent Pathway

Viral Infectious Diseases Unit, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Curt Hagedorn
Received: 18 May 2016 / Revised: 14 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 July 2016 / Published: 28 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
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Influenza remains a serious worldwide public health problem. After infection, viral genomic RNA is replicated in the nucleus and packed into viral ribonucleoprotein, which will then be exported to the cytoplasm via a cellular chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-dependent pathway for further assembly and budding. However, the nuclear export mechanism of influenza virus remains controversial. Here, we identify cellular nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF2)-like export protein 1 (NXT1) as a novel binding partner of nucleoprotein (NP) that stimulates NP-mediated nuclear export via the CRM1-dependent pathway. NXT1-knockdown cells exhibit decreased viral replication kinetics and nuclear accumulated viral RNA and NP. By contrast, NXT1 overexpression promotes nuclear export of NP in a CRM1-dependent manner. Pull-down assays suggest the formation of an NXT1, NP, and CRM1 complex, and demonstrate that NXT1 binds to the C-terminal region of NP. These findings reveal a distinct mechanism for nuclear export of the influenza virus and identify the NXT1/NP interaction as a potential target for antiviral drug development. View Full-Text
Keywords: Influenza A virus; NP; NXT1; CRM1; nuclear export Influenza A virus; NP; NXT1; CRM1; nuclear export

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Chutiwitoonchai, N.; Aida, Y. NXT1, a Novel Influenza A NP Binding Protein, Promotes the Nuclear Export of NP via a CRM1-Dependent Pathway. Viruses 2016, 8, 209.

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