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Correspondence of Neutralizing Humoral Immunity and CD4 T Cell Responses in Long Recovered Sudan Virus Survivors

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Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel
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Virology Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter St., Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21701, USA
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Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel
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Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute, Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, Entebbe P.O. Box 49, Uganda
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Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala P.O. Box 7072, Uganda
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London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
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Department of Arbovirology, Emerging and Re-Emerging Infection Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe P.O. Box 49, Uganda
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Andrew Mehle
Viruses 2016, 8(5), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8050133
Received: 3 March 2016 / Revised: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 6 May 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
Robust humoral and cellular immunity are critical for survival in humans during an ebolavirus infection. However, the interplay between these two arms of immunity is poorly understood. To address this, we examined residual immune responses in survivors of the Sudan virus (SUDV) outbreak in Gulu, Uganda (2000–2001). Cytokine and chemokine expression levels in SUDV stimulated whole blood cultures were assessed by multiplex ELISA and flow cytometry. Antibody and corresponding neutralization titers were also determined. Flow cytometry and multiplex ELISA results demonstrated significantly higher levels of cytokine and chemokine responses in survivors with serological neutralizing activity. This correspondence was not detected in survivors with serum reactivity to SUDV but without neutralization activity. This previously undefined relationship between memory CD4 T cell responses and serological neutralizing capacity in SUDV survivors is key for understanding long lasting immunity in survivors of filovirus infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ebola survivors; memory immunity; neutralizing antibodies; cellular immunity Ebola survivors; memory immunity; neutralizing antibodies; cellular immunity
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Sobarzo, A.; Stonier, S.W.; Herbert, A.S.; Ochayon, D.E.; Kuehne, A.I.; Eskira, Y.; Fedida-Metula, S.; Tali, N.; Lewis, E.C.; Egesa, M.; Cose, S.; Lutwama, J.J.; Yavelsky, V.; Dye, J.M.; Lobel, L. Correspondence of Neutralizing Humoral Immunity and CD4 T Cell Responses in Long Recovered Sudan Virus Survivors. Viruses 2016, 8, 133.

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